Dining Room
Living Room
Kitchen & Bathroom
Special Ranges
Ready Made Items
Stained Glass
Paintings & Prints
Door Furniture
Greeting Cards
Pictorial Histories
Movement Histories
Places of Interest
About the Arts & Crafts Home
Currency Converter
Metric Converter


Vintage Office

On this page we offer a collection of both antiques and replicas for use in the office. We have a stock of Vintage Office Equipment, Roll-Top Desks, Globe Wernicke Bookcases, Library Bookcases, Vintage Office Chairs, Vintage Office Clocks, Vintage Desk Lamps, and Vintage Office Accessories. This stock changes regularly, so please email with your requirements.


Most of these items are available as replicas too.



A solid oak roll-top desk, with oak handles, and fully fitted interior.

Several in stock, please EMAIL for details and prices


Oak stacking bookcase, made by Globe Wernicke

Several in stock, please EMAIL for details and prices


Oak stacking bookcase, made by Globe Wernicke

Several in stock, please EMAIL for details and prices

We have Trade Warehouse with a large selection of unrestored Globe Wernicke Bookcases always in stock... Please EMAIL for details


Unrestored £150.00 + VAT per section

Restored £200.00 + VAT per section


Unrestored £1000.00 + VAT

Restored £1800.00 + VAT


Unrestored £1200.00 + VAT

Restored £2000.00 + VAT


Unrestored £450.00 + VAT

Restored £550.00 + VAT


Oak Unrestored £250.00 + VAT

Oak Restored £350.00 + VAT

Mahogany Unrestored £350.00 + VAT

Mahogany Restored £450.00 + VAT



Unrestored £250.00 + VAT

Restored £350.00 + VAT




Wij hebben het Pakhuis van de Handel altijd met een grote selectie van unrestored Boekenkasten van Wernicke van de Bol in voorraad... Gelieve TE VERSTUREN voor details met de elektronische post

Nous avons l'entrepôt commercial avec un grand choix des bibliothèques non restaurées de Wernicke de globe toujours en stock... Svp EMAIL pour des détails

Wir haben Geschäftslager mit einer großen Vorwähler von unrestored Kugel Wernicke Bücherregale immer auf Lager... Bitte EMAIL für Details

Op deze pagina bieden wij een inzameling van zowel antiquiteiten als replica's voor gebruik in het bureau aan. Wij hebben een voorraad van het Uitstekende Materiaal van het Bureau, broodje-Hoogste Bureaus, de Boekenkasten van Wernicke van de Globe, de Boekenkasten van de Bibliotheek, de Uitstekende Stoelen van het Bureau, de Uitstekende Klokken van het Bureau, de Uitstekende Lampen van het Bureau, en de Uitstekende Toebehoren van het Bureau. Deze voorraad verandert regelmatig, zo tevreden e-mail met uw vereisten.

À cette page nous offrons une collection des deux antiquités et reproductions pour l'usage dans le bureau. Nous avons des actions d'équipement de bureau de cru, de bureaux de Rouler-Dessus, de bibliothèques de Wernicke de globe, de bibliothèques de bibliothèque, de chaises de bureau de cru, d'horloges de bureau de cru, de lampes de bureau de cru, et d'accessoires de bureau de cru. Ces actions changent régulièrement, satisfont ainsi l'email avec vos conditions.

Auf dieser Seite bieten wir eine Ansammlung beider Antiken und Repliken für Gebrauch im Büro an. Wir haben einen Vorrat an Weinlese-Büroeinrichtung, Rollen-Oberseite Schreibtische, Globe Wernicke Bücherregale, Bibliothek-Bücherregale, Weinlese-Büro-Stühle, Weinlese-Büro-Taktgeber, Weinlese-Schreibtisch-Lampen und Weinlese-Büro-Zusatzgeräten. Dieser Vorrat ändert regelmäßig, gefallen so email mit Ihren Anforderungen.


We have a large selection of antique renovated oak office armchairs.

Several in stock, please EMAIL for details and prices



We have a large selection of early office clocks, including Station Clocks, Post Office Clocks and Time Card Clocks

Several in stock, please EMAIL for details and prices


Always in stock, Oak Antique Bookcases, Mahogany Antique Bookcases.

Several in stock, please EMAIL for details and prices


Replica brass Banker's Desk Lamp.

Several in stock, please EMAIL for details and prices. We also have several antique desk lamps in stock


Replica brass Office Desk Lamp.

Several in stock, please EMAIL for details and prices. We also have several antique desk lamps in stock.



Several in stock, please EMAIL for details and prices.


Several in stock, please EMAIL for details and prices.


Several in stock, please EMAIL for details and prices.


Several in stock, please EMAIL for details and prices.


An American businessman Henry C. Yeiser set up a furniture factory called The Globe Files Co in Cincinnati in 1882. The factory started manufacturing office and filing furniture. In about the same time, a furniture factory called The Wernicke Co was set up in Grand Rapids, Michigan. A few years later The Wernicke Co designed a bookcase, which consisted of different sized glass cabinet components. By stacking these components on top of and beside one another, you could create different wholes.

Henry C. Yeiser got interested in this design and bought The Wernicke Co factory. With the new owner, the factory was renamed The Globe Wernicke Co. In December 1892 Henry C. Yeiser patented this unique bookcase design. This bookcase design was a huge success and aroused great interest also in Europe. By the end of the 19th century, an English furniture manufacturer Thomas Turner started marketing the design in England. The company was named The Globe Wernicke Co Ltd. In time, The Globe Wernicke Co also expanded to Canada, France, Belgium and Austria.

With the designs great success several other furniture manufacturers got interested in the product and started to manufacture similar designs. The most notable of these in Europe were: Shannon Registrator, Minty and Gunn in England; Aug. Zeiss & Co (later Zeiss Union) and Soennecken in Germany and Lingel in Hungary.

In Finland, Billnäs Bruk Aktiebolag started manufacturing American style office furniture in 1909. A significant part of this product line was the Globe Wernicke bookcase design. Billnäs Bruk merged with Oy Fiskars Ab on the 1st of January 1959, but continued to manufacture furniture under the name Billnäs Bruk. The making of American style office furniture ended in the late ’60s and the furniture factory was closed down in 1970. BOKNAS

Otto Heinrich Louis Wernicke in 1889 invented a stacking system for units, meant as a quick
system of building up storage shelves. The design of this storage rack - made from bare planks - formed the basis of the later known Globe-Wernicke bookcase technique. The first patent for this shelving system was granted in 1892 and not long after the Wernicke Company, in Norwood, a suburb of Cincinnati in the USA, emerged. The popularity of the then known Wernicke bookcase units rose very quickly. With frequent advertising in the North Western Law Reporter these units were soon given the nickname the Barrister Bookcases. But notaries, lawyers and ministers also found the stacking bookcase system an attractive benefit. In 1899 the company Globe took over the Wernicke company. The Globe company had already developed to be one of the largest producers of archive systems, filing cabinets and pigeon-hole shelving. The company knew that with this bookshelf system it would create a welcome addition to their existing portfolio of products. Thanks to the increasing popularity of the units they could make a start on refining them. Thus they began using them to hang in window fronts helping prevent dust and once decorative edging and covered ridging were added they were also used in reception areas. As a result of this, the Globe-Wernicke bookshelf system developed a wider market.


The production of the Globe-Wernicke bookcase units was not only linked to the USA. In London they also started manufacturing them and as a result they also became a great success in Victorian England. Thanks also to the world-wide spread of the British colonies, people even came across the stackable bookshelves in India. Successful products are always imitated. After the first patent expired (after 20 years), the first copies appeared. This was not only the case in the USA and England, but copies were also being made in Germany and Scandinavia. A big difference between these copies and the original Wernicke units was that the first named copies were limited only to the production of a few designs. Globe-Wernicke was the only one who supplied a rich assortment of varying depths, breadths, heights and styles. Every new product was instantly patented, which meant the Globe-Wernicke company remained a step ahead of the competition. It is also thanks to the slogan “It grows with your
business and your business grows with it”, that Globe-Wernicke grew to be one of the largest factories of its time.


Besides the ‘Standard line’ of Globe-Wernicke, there was also the simpler Universal Style and the luxury Ideal Unit Bookcase with stained-glass, pilasters on the balusters and a ridged cover with cut-out acanthus leaves. All cupboards were delivered in oak and mahogany. What began as simple stackable shelving units, sometimes turned into a complete library, with as many partition as corner models in varying sizes. In adverts, the cupboards were praised with the term “The Unit Idea”, to help spread the basic concept of the shelving system. With the luxury Ideal Unit Bookcase - the Rolls Royce of bookcase systems - Globe- Wernicke in 1912 reached its highest point. Later, in 1920 sales dropped and Wernicke, the inventor, died. After a takeover in 1955, the workers at Norwood handed in their notice and with that the curtain fell on the Globe-Wernicke company. The end of a company with a remarkable history and a unique product. But this did not automatically mean the end of the Globe-Wernicke shelving system. The opposite in fact.


Nowadays it is still possible to make up library shelving systems with the original Globe-Wernicke units. Due to the fact that the ceilings since the second half of the last century have become lower, and standard antique bookcases in most houses did not fit, the old style shelving system is a good alternative.

The bookcases are sold in sections and we can look for whatever colour, grain or size fits best together. Often people divide two large units as bases, which are then built up with smaller units of the same size and then finished off with a ridge round the top.
The original Globe-Wernicke bookcases are available in four different depths and seven different heights. No other brand offers this. The cupboards can also be placed under a 90 degree corner and then paired up, with the help of corner fittings. Most of the units ordered are requested narrower than the standard size (86 cm). Bases and ridge-tops are delivered in the same widths as the cases themselves. The bases are also available with or without drawers.

In the shop there are varying examples of the many possibilities. What is unusual about the system is that it can be adapted to practically any space. Original pieces can always be added to. Rightly so on all original pieces there is a slogan to be found which every Globe-Wernicke enthusiast keenly treasures : “Globe-Wernicke: always complete but never finished.”


The coupling system is the most essential part of the Globe-Wernicke bookcase systems, where the separated units are built up. One unit attaches vertically to the other. When linking them sideways a horizontal joining strip is used. This is constructed from a metal strip dyed blue which when dried is covered with copper plating to match the doorknobs and draw handles. Besides the basic bookcases in oak and mahogany there are combination bookcase units which are put together by building up sections with different heights and depths with as many straight as corner fittings.

Corner fittings are unique because of the fact that old corner units are nowadays very scarce. What is often used to solve this corner problem is to attach ridged tops and edging at a 90 degree angle under the corner joint. If necessary the corner between the units can be finished off with a cornicing effect from polished wood.

Each unit of this system comes with a sealed glass door. Literally in less than no time it can be opened, where after the door can be pushed up and over the books towards the back wall with the use of roller bearings which are equipped with a scissor system. In short: simple to operate and practical to use.
Glass faceted front hanging doors can be made to order – and for an extra supplement –delivered. Instead of glass the front doors can also be ordered with embossed wooden panels. VAN LEEST.


1. Universal Style: The "800" series (809, 811, 813, 847, etc...) - This is the VENEERED sides and "no Bands" straight and simple design. The veneer on the sides often cracks and splits and is more difficult to cleanly repair. The bases have legs, but are not like the mission style bases, and the tops are squared, but have little accent in design, keeping with the "clean, simple lines" design. Generally available in Quartered Oak, Imitation Mahogany, and Imitation Walnut.

2. Art Mission Style: The "300" series (308, 310, 312, 347, 341, etc...) - This is the solid wood series with thicker sides and usually wooden bands and wooden knobs, although there is a line (Mission series) with metal bands and metal knobs, squared. The bases have legs in the mission style, and the tops are heavy and squared, also with wood or metal bands. The "Colonial" and "Art Mission" styles share the same book sections, but the tags may read "Colonial" or "Art Mission". The top and bottom are what distinguishes these styles predominantly. Generally available in Quartered Oak, Genuine Mahogany, and Genuine Walnut. Available in "single door" and "double door" configuration as well. The difference between "Mission" and "Art Mission" is the bands. The Mission series having metal bands and metal knobs.

3. Colonial Style: Also the "300" series (308, 310, 312, 340, 349, etc...) - See the Art Mission description above. The main difference is the front of the top and base sections has a rounded appearance and the legs are rounded in front as well, in the typical colonial style. These seem to be more rare, and I have not seen any in the metal band configuration, unlike the mission series. The tops to these weigh a lot! They are very heavy and solid. Generally available in Quartered Oak, Genuine Mahogany, and Genuine Walnut. These are also available in "single door" and "double door" configurations.

4. Standard Style: The "100" series, and the "Standard D" and "Standard C" series (108, 110, 112, 143, D-12 1/4, C-9, etc...) - This is the most common series seen and sold here on e-Bay. About 34" wide. Comes standardly in the "D" depth or about 11 1/2" deep or the "C" depth or about 9 1/2" deep. Also comes in a deeper "E" section about 13" deep and then the custom, and very rare "G" and "H" sections. The standard top as well as the standard base for these has been called by many names; Rolltop, Waterfall, Ogee, Rounded front. These have metal bands, mostly brass, some copper as well. Metal knobs, mostly brass, but some copper as well. Generally available in Plain Oak, Quartered Oak, Genuine Mahogany, and Imitation Mahogany. Available in "single door" and "short" configurations in both the "D" and "C" sizes.

5. Sheraton Style: The "500" series (508, 510, 512, 541, etc...) - This is a fancier style with inlays on the faces and the sides. These are, like the Universal style cases, VENEERED sides. These were manufactured only in real mahogany, as far as I know, and are pretty scarce. I believe these are meant to be the Cadillac universal style, so the tops are square and the bases have legs, but not in the mission style. Generally available only in Genuine Mahogany. Available in "single door" and "double door" configurations.

6. Ideal Style: The "400" series (408, 410, 412, 460, 440, 446, etc...) - This is the very fancy set from GW, the "Top of the Line" series. Panelled sides, very detailed trim, richly carved fronts. Solid wood for the most part. These do not have regular glass, but only bevelled or leaded glass. So, if you are buying one of these sections and there is regular glass, know that although it may be old glass, it is not the original glass. The top and base somewhat rounded like the standard series, but definitely different. This is a very rare set. Generally available in Quartered Oak, Genuine Mahogany, and Genuine Walnut. Available in "single door" configuration.

Globe Wernicke - The CODES:

Pattern Numbers - Reference the above "series" numbers - There are more numbers than provided, but this are the most common and they should provide a guide for numbers not listed.

Grade or Finish numbers -

No. 197 - PLAIN OAK, weathered finish, brass oxidized trimmings

No. 198 - PLAIN OAK, fine medium dark antique gloss finish, copper oxidized trimmings

No. 217 1/2 - QUARTERED OAK, fumed brownish medium wax finish

No. 297 - QUARTER SAWED FIGURED WEATHERED OAK, dead finish, brass oxidized trimmings, dark or medium finish available

No. 298 - QUARTER SAWED FIGURED OAK, standard antique finish, copper oxidized trimmings

No. 298 1/2 - QUARTER SAWED FIGURED OAK, dead antique finish, dull brush-finished brass trimmings

No. 299 - QUARTER SAWED FIGURED OAK, deep rich golden finish, highly polished, brass oxidized trimmings

No. 299 1/2 - QUARTER SAWED FIGURED OAK, dead golden finish, dull brush-finished brass trimmings

No. 398 - IMITATION DARK MAHOGANY, highly polished, brass oxidized trimmings

N0. 516 1/2 - Genuine MAHOGANY, brownish, dead finish, medium dark, dull brass hardware

No. 598 - Genuine MAHOGANY, richly finished, medium dark, brass oxidized trimmings

No. 598 1/2 - Genuine MAHOGANY, medium dark dead finish, dull brush-finished brass trimmings

No. 599 1/2 - Genuine MAHOGANY, brownish with a tinge of dull red - Sheraton style only

No. 698 - QUARTER SAWED FIGURED ANTWERP OAK, polished, brass oxidized trimmings

No. 698 1/2 - QUARTER SAWED FIGURED ANTWERP OAK, dead finish, dull brush-finished brass trimmings

No. 798 1/2 - QUARTER SAWED FIGURED EARLY ENGLISH OAK, medium light, dead finish, dull brush-finished brass trimmings

No. 898 - QUARTER SAWED OAK, mission finish, solid brass trimmings of dull black, furnished on mission style of bookcases only

No. 998 1/2 - QUARTERED OAK, fumed brownish dark wax finish

Author JLent@AtlanticBB.net


Roll Top Desks are part of American History and are a challenging project to build. In 1850, Abner Cutler, owner of the Cutler Desk Co. in Buffalo, New York, was the first American to patent the roll top desk that we know today. The curved tambour top became his standard and it has become a classic style that has endured for more than 145 years.

A rolltop desk is a 19th century reworking of the pedestal desk with, in addition, a series of stacked compartments, shelves, drawers and nooks in front of the user, much like the Bureau a gradin or the Carlton house desk. In contrast to these the compartments and the desktop surface of a rolltop desk can be covered by means of wooden slats that roll or slide through slots in the raised sides of the desk. In that, it is a descendant in function, and partly in form, of the cylinder desk of the 18th century. It is a relative of the tambour desk whose slats retract horizontally rather than vertically.

Unlike the cylinder desk, the rolltop desk could be mass produced rather easily since the simple wooden slats could be turned out very fast in a uniform way. In contrast, the wooden section of a cylinder had to be treated with great pains to keep its form perfectly over time, lest it warp or bend, and make it impossible to retract or extend. The wooden slats of the rolltop were usually joined together by being all attached to a same cloth or leather foundation, and were thus less influenced by the problems which plagued the cylinder desk.

The rolltop desk was the mainstay of the small or medium sized office at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th. It gradually fell out of favor with the introduction of the steel desk and the coming of greater quantities of correspondence and other documents, which made the small stacked drawers and small shelves obsolete. There were just too many letters to bother folding them again and placing them in the proper slot and there was too little time to open and close all the small drawers to look for things.


With the advent of railroads in the mid-1800’s, businesses began to expand beyond the traditional model of a family business with little emphasis on administration. Additional administrative staff was required to keep up with orders, bookkeeping, and correspondence as businesses expanded their service areas. While office work was expanding, an awareness of office environments, technology, and equipment became part of the cultural focus on increasing productivity. This awareness gave rise to chairs designed specifically for these new administrative employees – office chairs.

The office chair was strategically designed to increase the productivity of clerical employees by making it possible for them to remain sitting at their desks for long periods of time. A swiveling chair allowed employees to remain sitting and yet reach a number of locations within their work area, eliminating the time and energy expended in standing. The wooden saddle seat was designed to fit and support the body of a sitting employee, and the slatted back and armrests provided additional support to increase the employee’s comfort. Like our modern chairs, many of these models were somewhat adjustable to provide the maximum comfort and thus the maximum working time.

The culture of the office also demanded that a distinct difference exist between the chairs that the employees used and that of the chief executive. When swivel chairs were widely used, the executive sat in a straight-backed chair with no mobility to demonstrate his status. As design of the office chair eliminated the arms and added cushioned seats, the executive chair became a large, upholstered chair with closed arms and wide, luxurious seats. Even today, the size (both height of the back and width of the seat) of an office chair demonstrates the status of the user.


Michael Thonet (July 2, 1796 - March 3, 1871) was a German pioneer of furniture design.
Born in Boppard-am-Rhein, Prussia (present day Germany), Thonet (pronounced TAHN-it) quite fittingly started life near the beginning of the industrial revolution. He would go on to form a company and pioneer mass production, both attributes of this new industrial era.

He trained as an apprentice cabinet maker in his home town. After his apprenticeship, he began almost immediately to experiment with bentwood and veneers in furniture. In 1842, Thonet was invited to Vienna by the Chancellor of Austria to do some of the furniture for the Palais Liechtenstein. His work was still very experimental at this point but displayed an innovative spirit which attracted the Chancellor. Despite being invited to become the official furniture designer to the throne of Austria, Thonet chose to remain independent.

He had set his sights on a larger audience. Thonet set up his own company in the furniture trade, Gebrüder Thonet, with his five sons and apprentices in the furniture trade in 1853. By 1856, he had perfected his technique and prepared for mass production through opening his own factory in Vienna. He designed the factory himself. Success quickly followed, so much so that Thonet soon had to open another factory. This time the factory was located at Koritschan, in the modern day Czech Republic. This factory was situated close to a large beechwood forest, as well as a supply of cheap labour. Moreover, Thonet had streamlined his process even more by this time, reducing production costs all the way through his process. The beechwood forest eliminated the need for costly wood importation.
Although Michael Thonet died in 1871, his designs and production process lived on however, with his sons. By 1913, Gebrüder Thonet employed 6,400 workers and produced 1.8 million pieces of furniture a year. One chair, the No. 14 chair alone sold 40 million copies between 1859 and 1939.

Thonet's process of production dictated his furniture design. Other designers and producers of his time were using flat wood, with many joints, often ornately hiding the joints through carving and veneers. Thonet focused his work on bending wood. Around the early 1840s, Thonet's process was limited. At this time the only wood bending was used in ship construction. This involved the application of heat and water while the piece was secured in a jig. This process was rarely used in furniture as the wood could not be bent substantially. Thonet began by using thin wood veneers, which are more flexible than solid pieces. He would glue several of these together and place the piece in a jig to dry. This allowed a great level of flexibility in design, but was labour intensive, requiring great care while jigging. Thonet was also limited to bending the wood along only one plane. He experimented further by cutting the already set veneers in another direction, and bending them again, as well as varying the dimensions of the veneers used to try for the maximum in bendablity. Still, costs were too high, and the process too complex for mass production. By the mid 1840's Thonet started twisting his laminated pieces, allowing them to be bent in multiple directions. The wood then is rasped to give a round or oval cross section. Once forms were made, this process lead to the first mass production by Thonet.

Thonet's experiments continued however, both out of an innovating spirit, and as well as a new economic reason. Thonet's works began to be exported to the Americas, and it was found that the glues used in the veneer process were dissolving in hot, wet tropical climates. After a long period of experimentation, Thonet discovered the solution. A metal strap was secured on one side and both ends of a solid piece of wood. Then both the metal frame and wood were bent as one piece, in a single operation. The metal strap would stretch marginally, thereby forcing all the fibers of the wood to compress and not crack. This solution further streamlined the process, reduced costs, production time, and opened a new market, all in one move.

Not only did Thonet innovate in his bentwood, but also his assembly process. Through the use of bentwoods, Thonet eliminated many of the joints in traditional furniture. This gave greater strength to the piece using less material, as well as reducing the amount of fasteners needed. Furthermore, Thonet's furniture jigs created pieces so accurately time and time again, that his pieces were interchangeable.

The impact of Thonet was extraordinary and far reaching. Thonet affected the business of furniture, the avant-garde art establishment, and the design process of many products, from his own day to the present. Thonet developed the mass production techniques of bentwood furniture, but was not the only one to employ them. Soon after his original patents expired, plenty of imitators emerged. In the 1890's over 50 bentwood furniture makers were in business, however none were able to challenge Thonet's dominance of innovation. As far as production numbers, his #14 bistro chair remains one of the most produced chairs in history, still being produced today by Gebrüder Thonet.
With figures like this, his business impact was an amazing success. Artistically he also impacted greatly. From the art nouveau appearance of his rocking chairs, to the modernist simplicity of the #14 bistro chair, he was far ahead of his time.

Despite the resemblance to later artistic movements, Thonet allowed his process and market to drive his design, but that is not to say that these later movements did not draw upon his work. Auguste Renoir sketched out a Thonet rocking chair in 1883. Toulouse Lautrec, an art nouveau era artist, used Thonet furniture in the background of many of his works. Pablo Picasso had a Thonet in his studio. Finally, the Swiss modernist architect Le Corbusier used Thonet furniture extensively in his early buildings, stating how thoroughly they represented the modernist concepts of economy, durability and humbleness. In every era to follow, Thonet's work has remained a work of art, yet also accepted by the mainstream public.


Bentwood is a term used to describe furniture made by steaming wood, bending it, and letting it harden into curved shapes and patterns, and is most often used in the production of rocking chairs, cafe chairs, and other light furniture. The process was developed by Michael Thonet, a German who received a patent in 1856. Many other furniture manufacturers have used the process since the expiry of the patent in 1889.

The process is still in widespread use for making casual and informal furniture of all types, particularly seating and table forms. It is also a popular technique in the worldwide production of furniture with frames made of heavy cane, which is commonly imported into European and Western shops for today's consumers.


Armoire desk.

An Armoire desk is a desk built within a large cabinet usually having the height of a tall man or a small woman, or anything in between. The cabinet is closed by two to four full height doors, to keep out dust or give a tidy appearance to a room by hiding the cluttered working surface of the desk. This form of desk is usually placed against a wall, like its antique uncle, the Secretary desk.

Bargueno desk.

The Bargueno (also Vargueno desk) is a desk first produced in the 15th century that continues to be produced to this day. The only other desk which is known to have been continuously produced is the Trestle desk, but some authorities exclude this desk from consideration because in early times it also served as a dining table and money lender's counter.

The Bargueno was sometimes used for sewing or as a jewel chest instead of solely for reading and writing and storing the necessary implements for these activities.

The Bargueno is above all a Portable desk which resembles the top half of a fall front desk. It is basically a chest with its lid on the side, and an interior equipped with a good quantity of small drawers and pigeon holes.

As a general rule the interior of a Bargueno is much more richly decorated than the exterior. Thus a Bargueno looking very plain from the exterior will have a reasonably rich and well sculpted interior while a Bargueno with impressive exterior decorations will have a truly ornate and extremely rich interior with ivory inlays and velvet decoration. It is one of the best examples of wood craftsmanship in Renaissance Spain.

There was usually a very sturdy iron handle on each side of the Bargueno, to make transport relatively easy for two strong servants. A Bargueno could be set down on any solid table but there were often ready made supports for it: The "Taquillon" was a chest of drawers decorated much like it while the "Pie de puente" was a small trestle table also in the same style and material.

Barguenos first appeared in the 15th and were popular all through the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries. After a lull in the 19th century, they became again popular as antiques in the 20th.
The only other major antique combination of a large portable desk and a frame is the more delicate and humble Desk on a frame of the 18th century. It was popular in Colonial America.

Bonheur du jour.

A bonheur du jour is a type of lady's writing-desk, so called because, when it was introduced in France about 1760, it speedily became intensely fashionable. The bonheur du jour is always very light and graceful; its special characteristic is a raised back, which may form a little cabinet or a nest of drawers, or may simply be fitted with a mirror. The top, often surrounded with a chased and gilded bronze gallery, serves for placing small ornaments. Beneath the writing surface there is usually a single drawer. The details vary greatly, but the general characteristics are always traceable. The bonheur du jour has never been so delicate, so charming, so coquettish as in the quarter of a century which followed its introduction. The choicer examples of the time are inlaid with Marquetry, edged with exotic woods, set in gilded bronze, or enriched with panels of Oriental lacquer.

Bureau a gradin.

A Bureau a gradin or bureau à gradin is basically an antique desk form resembling a Writing table with, in addition, one or several tiers of small drawers and pigeonholes built on part of the desktop surface. Usually the drawers and pigeonholes are placed in front of the user but sometimes they can surround him, or her, as is the case for the Carlton house desk form.

In some cases the bureau a gradin has a second tier of drawers under the work surface, and thus looks like an advanced form of the bureau Mazarin or like a non-enclosed version of the cylinder desk, or the tambour desk.

Bureau plat.

A writing table (French bureau plat) has a series of drawers directly under the surface of the table, to contain writing implements, so that it may serve as a desk. Antique versions have the usual divisions for the inkpot, the blotter and the sand or powder tray in one of the drawers, and a surface covered with leather or some other material less hostile to the Quill or the Fountain pen than simple hard wood.
In form, a writing table is a Pedestal desk without the pedestals, having legs instead to hold it up. This is why such tables are sometimes called leg desks.

The writing table is often called a "Bureau plat" when it is done in a French style such as Louis XVI, Art Nouveau, etc. When a writing table is supported by two legs instead of four, it is usually called a Trestle desk.

The writing table is also sometimes called a library table, because it was often placed in a rich individual's library. This was the room in a house where a gentleman would keep literature and also do his business transactions. The library often housed, in addition, a round desk called a Rent table and sometimes a Drawing table. The term library table is sometimes applied indiscriminately to a wide variety of desk forms, in addition to being used for writing tables. Let the scholar or the buyer be wary.
Some writing tables have additional drawers built above the surface. In this case they are often called Bureau a gradin instead of writing table, unless they have a more specific form, such as that of a Carlton house desk.

As with many other desk forms antique writing tables were sometimes built with what was, at the time, a complex mechanism of gears and levers to make sections slide out or pop up when certain panels were pulled. In this case one sometimes called them a Mechanical desk.

Bureau Mazarin.

The bureau Mazarin is a 17th century desk form named more or less in memory of Cardinal Mazarin, regent of France from 1642 to 1661. It is the earliest predecessor of the pedestal desk and differs from it by having only two tiers of drawers or three tiers of rather small drawers under the desktop surface, followed by eight legs supporting the whole. Also, the bureau Mazarin has cross braces between the legs, forming two Xs or two Hs on each side.

Many bureaux Mazarin are kneehole desks, in that they are meant to be used sideways, with one knee only beneath the work surface. They were designed in an age where only the nobility or those who followed its customs closely, could afford to have such desks made. Members of the nobility often wore a ceremonial or practical sword, which was forever in the way. It was thus easier to use a desk sideways, with only one knee under it. The rest of the space next to the knee often served as a lockable storage space.

As was often the case with many desks of the period, some bureaux Mazarin were used as dressing tables instead of serving as desks, or were used for both functions.
Most of them were built in an ornate style which looks like a nightmare to keep clean. As with the Kunstschrank of the lands of Holy Roman Empire, the desk was sometimes more of a status symbol than a useful piece of furniture.

Carlton house desk.

A Carlton House desk is a specific antique desk form within the more general bureau a gradin form. This specific form is supposed to have been designed in the 18th century for the Prince of Wales (who would later become George IV) by George Hepplewhite. It is named after Carlton House, which was at the time the London residence of the Prince of Wales. This kind of desk is sometimes also known as a Carlton House writing table.

The desk is like a normal writing table but the small drawers above the surface form a U shape around the user instead of being merely set up in front of him as is usual in a typical bureau a gradin. Unlike other types of bureau a gradin the Carlton House desk usually offers no pigeonholes.
Drawings of this type of desk were presented by Hepplewhite in his famous design book the Cabinet Maker and Upholsterers Guide, and by Thomas Sheraton in his own famous book of designs (The Cabinet Maker and Upholsterer's Drawing Book), thus ensuring its popularity.

Carrel desk.

A carrel desk is a small desk (usually) featuring high sides meant to visually isolate its user from any surroundings either partially or totally. They were a predecessor to the more recent cubicle desk.
Carrel desks are most often found in the study spaces of large universities or college libraries. Most carrel desks are rectangular in shape and their amenities are often very limited. Above the main desktop area there is often a shelf for books. Sometimes the seat is integrated with the carrel desk. Unlike the cubicle desk, carrel desks usually have no file drawers or other facilities.

Like the school desk, the carrel desk is normally produced and sold in large quantities for an institutional market.

Cheveret desk.

A Cheveret desk is an antique desk of very small size which features a single drawer under the writing surface. In some occasions small drawers and pigeonholes are built on top, at the back, as in a smaller form of a bureau a gradin. It is also written with an "S": Sheveret.

Other variants of the Cheveret are much taller and have one or two shelves built between the legs, under the main drawer. They are meant to be used standing up, being then a form of standing desk.
Cheverets were popular in the United Kingdom in the 18th century.

Credenza desk.

A credenza desk is a modern desk form usually placed next to a wall, as a secondary work surface to that of another desk, such as a pedestal desk, in a typical executive office. The credenza desk is sometimes flat, like a pedestal desk, but more often than not it has a stack of shelves, small drawers and other nooks, above its main working surface. The sum of these overhead amenities is usually called a hutch. Hence, the credenza desk is often called a "credenza with hutch".

The credenza desk is often used as a computer desk, thus leaving the possibility of keeping the surface of the main desk completely free, when this is required. An executive desk is often the central artefact for a meeting between several persons. A computer monitor or a printer or even a simple keyboard on the surface can be impediments to the exchange.

The credenza desk is comparable in form to but differs from the armoire desk in that it is seen for the most part in large office buildings (instead of home offices, like the armoire desk) and most of its storage spaces are wide open.

The term credenza is also used for pieces of domestic furniture such as a sideboard buffet, where food is placed before serving.

Cubicle desk.

A cubicle, cubicle desk or office cubicle is a partially enclosed workspace, separated from neighbouring workspaces by partitions, generally five to six feet high. It is partially or entirely open on one side to allow access. Horizontal work surfaces are usually suspended from the partitions, as is shelving, overhead storage, and other amenities.

The term cubicle comes from the Latin cubiculum, for bed chamber. It was used in English as early as the 15th century. It eventually came to be used for small chambers of all sorts, and for small rooms or study spaces with partitions which do not reach to the ceiling.

Like the older carrel desk, a cubicle seeks to give a degree of privacy to the user while taking up minimal space in a large or medium sized room. Like the modular desk of the mid-20th century, it is composed of modular elements that can be arranged in various ways with standard hardware or custom fasteners, depending on the design. Installation is generally performed by professionals, although some cubicles allow configuration changes to be performed by users without specific training. Cubicles are highly configurable, allowing for a variety of elements such as work surfaces, overhead bins, drawers, and the like to be installed, depending on the individual user's needs.

Some sources attribute the introduction of the cubicle desk to the computer chip manufacturer Intel Inc. during the 1960s. Its creation is generally attributed to Robert Propst, a designer from Colorado who worked for Herman Miller Inc., a major manufacturer of office furniture. It was based on a 1965 prototype and named the Action Office, made up of modular units with an open plan, an entirely novel system for the time.

An office filled with cubicles is sometimes called a cube farm. Although humorous, the phrase usually has negative connotations. Cube farms are often found in high-tech companies, but they also crop up in the insurance industry and other service-related fields. Many cube farms were built during the dotcom boom.

Cylinder desk.

The cylinder desk is a form of desk which resembles a Bureau Mazarin or a writing table equipped with small stacked shelves in front of the user's main work surface, and a revolving cylinder part which comes down to hide and lock up the working papers when the day is done. Like the rolltop desk which was invented much later, the cylinder desk usually has a fixed work surface. This means that unlike a secretary desk the paperwork does not have to be stored before shutting up the desk. Some designs however, have the capacity to slide out the desk surface a few inches to expand the available working area.

The cylinder desk is also called "bureau Kaunitz", as it was allegedly introduced in France in the first half of the 18th century by Wenzel Anton von Kaunitz, then the ambassador of the Habsburg Empire to the French court. Regardless of the authenticity of its origin, the French court adopted this type of desk with great enthusiasm. The difficulty of producing wooden cylinder sections which would not warp over the years ensured that such desks were reserved for the rich and the very rich. A few variants of this form have slats instead of a one piece cylinder section.

The most famous cylinder desk, and perhaps the most famous desk of all times is the Bureau du Roi manufactured for the French royalty in the 18th century.

Davenport desk.

A Davenport desk is a small desk with an inclined lifting desktop attached with hinges to the back of the body. Lifting the desktop gives access to a large compartment giving ample storage space for paper and other writing implements, and smaller spaces in the forms of small drawers and pigeonholes. In addition, the Davenport has drawers on one of its sides, which are sometimes concealed by a panel. This stack of side drawers holds up the back of the desk and most of its weight. The front of the desk stands on thick legs or pillars which are usually carved in a given style.

The shape is very distinctive if not strange. The top part is much like an antique school desk while the bottom is like one half of the supports of a pedestal desk turned sideways. The addition of the two legs in front complete the odd effect.

This desk owes its name to a captain Davenport who was the first to commission this particular design, from Gillows of London, near the end of the 18th century. In a sense then it could also be considered a Campaign desk though there are no records indicating if the captain was in the British Army or the Royal Navy.

This desk form was very popular during the 19th century. There have been numerous reproductions during the 20th century, and amateur cabinet makers sometimes consider a Davenport to be an interesting project.

The Davenport desk should not be confused with the Davenport sofa, which is usually a modern combination sofa and bed or an antique form of upholstered sofa based on a design conceived at the beginning of the 20th century by a Boston company called Irving and Casson and Davenport.

Desk and bench.

A Desk and bench can be an antique or a modern form of desk combined with a small bench or a stool made in exactly the same style and material. The desk is usually not very big and meant to be placed against a wall, in a little room or a hallway. Because of this intended venue and its small size it is in a sense a cousin to the Telephone desk. In form it is in general a smaller brother of the Writing table.
The term "Desk and bench" is also sometimes used to describe a School desk which has a built-in seat. A "Desk and bench" set is also sometimes called a "Desk and stool".

The desk is usually built with a single drawer or none, and the bench can sometimes have a small storage space under its seat. Great attention is usually paid to the aesthetics of the set in order to enhance the matching features.

Since the stool or bench has no back it is put away completely under the desk when not in use, maximizing even more the available space.

Desk on a chest.

The Desk on a frame or Desk on frame is usually an antique form made up of two pieces of furniture. The first piece is a fairly large and closable portable desk with a slanted hinged top giving access to the writing surface and utility nooks and small drawers. The second piece is a stand made for it in the same style and material. It is also sometimes a single piece of furniture which looks as if it were made up of the two previous pieces but is in fact solid and undetachable. This form was popular in Colonial America and was often done in the Queen Anne style.

The Slant top desk is a direct morphological descendant. In a sense the Spanish Bargueno desk or Vargueno is a distant cousin of the two piece version, since the Bargueno is also made up of a portable desk and a stand constructed specially for it, using the same materials and style.

Drawing table.

A drawing board (also drawing table, drafting table, architect's table or draughting table) is, in its antique form, a kind of multipurpose Desk which can be used for any kind of drawing, writing or impromptu sketching on a large sheet of paper or for reading a large format book or other oversized document or for drafting precise technical illustrations. The drawing table used to be a frequent companion to a pedestal desk in a gentleman's study or private library, during the preindustrial and early industrial era.

During the Industrial Revolution draftsmanship gradually became a specialized trade and drawing tables slowly moved out of the libraries and offices of most gentlemen. They became more utilitarian and were built of steel and plastic instead of fine woods and brass.

More recently engineers and draftsmen use the drawing board for making and modifying drawings on paper with ink or pencil. Different drawing instruments (set square, protractor, etc.) are used on it to draw parallel, perpendicular or oblique lines. There are instruments for drawing circles, arcs, other curves and symbols too (compass, French curve, stencil, etc). However, with the gradual introduction of computer aided drafting and design (CADD or CAD) in the last decades of the 20th century and the first of the 21st century, the Drawing board is slowly becoming an obsolete tool.

A drawing table is also sometimes called a Mechanical desk because, for several centuries most mechanical desks were drawing tables. Unlike the gadgety mechanical desks of the second part of the 18th century, however, the mechanical parts of drawing tables were usually limited to notches, ratchets, and perhaps a few simple gears, or levers or cogs to elevate and incline the working surface.
Very often a drawing table could look like a Writing table or even a pedestal desk when the working surface was set at the horizontal and the height adjusted to 29 inches, in order to use it as a "normal" desk. The only give-away was usually a lip on one of the sides of the desktop. This lip or edge stopped paper or books from sliding when the surface was given an angle. It was also sometimes used to hold writing implements. When the working surface was extended at its full height, a drawing table could be used as a Standing desk.

Many reproductions have been made and are still being produced of drawing tables, copying the period styles they were originally made in during the 18th and 19th centuries.
The expression "Back to the drawing board" is used when a plan or course of action is unsuccessful and needs to be changed, often drastically.

Ergonomic desk.

The ergonomic desk is a modern desk form which, like the adjustable drawing table or drafting table, offers mechanical adjustments for the placement of its elements in order to maximize user comfort and efficiency. The ergonomic desk is usually a "stand-alone" piece of furniture allowing access to the adjustment mechanisms. Some ergonomic desks have a sufficiently large desktop height adjustment to create either a "sit-down" desk or a standing desk, which allows the user to work while standing. The ergonomic desk is usually a close companion to the ergonomic chair.

The ergonomic desk originated with the beginning of the field of human factors or ergonomics after World War II. Legislation stating minimal requirements for furniture used by office workers referred to ergonomic desk standards.

The most common form of the computer desk is a variant of the ergonomic desk, having an adjustable keyboard tray and sufficient desktop space for handwriting. Provisions for a monitor shelf and holes for routing cables are integrated in the design, making it easier to connect the computer components together. Space is provided for a keyboard, mouse, monitor, printer and speakers. The typical armoire desk is usually sold with these features and better cubicle desk designs include holes, trays and shelves for computer systems.

There is a seemingly endless variety of computer desk shapes and forms. Large multi-student computer desks configured in rows are designed to house dozens of computer systems in novel ways while also facilitating wiring, general maintenance, theft prevention and vandalism reduction. Small rolling lectern desks or computer carts with tiny desktops provide just enough room for a laptop computer and a mouse pad. Computer desks are typically mass-produced and require some self-assembly. Local crafts persons can build desks to order or produce unique designs.

The computer itself is normally separate from the desk. The desk is designed generically to hold a typically sized computer, monitor and accessories. Cabling must be carefully routed through the channels and access openings provided by the desk design. A few computers are built within a desk made specially for them, like the British iDesk. The computer is not removable and cannot be separated from the desk. Office of the future proposed other integrated designs.

A rolling computer table configuration offers mobility and improved access in situations where a desk is not convenient. Gyratory computer tables can be used over a bed. Modular computer tables separate user interface elements from the computing and network connection, allowing more placement flexibility. The modules are connected via wireless technology.


An escritoire is a small, portable writing desk with a sloping front door, hinged at the bottom edge, that can be opened downwards to provide a writing surface. It is usually larger than a lap desk. The interior may contain small drawers designed to hold the traditional ink pot, sand container, blotter and writing feathers or pens. This type of antique appeared in the 16th century in Europe and was produced in large quantities in France in the 18th century. Modern reproductions are sometimes made of this compact desk form.

Fall front desk.

The fall front desk can be considered as the cousin of the Secretary desk. Both have a main working surface or desktop which does double duty as a cover to seal up papers and other items located in small shelves or small drawers placed one on top of the other in front of the user. Thus, all working papers, documents and other items have to be stored before the desk is closed.

Unlike the secretary desk, the fall front desk's desktop panel is in a perfectly vertical position when in its closed position. Often, there are no additional shelves or drawers above the section which is enclosed by the desktop. Thus, the fall front desk is identical in shape to a Bargueno desk which would have been placed on a stand of drawers, or more precisely to the form know as Desk on a chest or as "chest-on chest".

The fall front desk is also called a drop front desk or drop-front desk, and sometimes also a drop lid desk. Scrutoire and scriptoire are ancient variations. The secretaire a abattant is a nearly identical form, but usually in a French style such as Louis XV, Art Deco, etc.. In the early 19th century Shaker communities produced a tall and plain variation which is often known as a "cupboard desk".

Fire screen desk.

The fire screen desk was a very small antique desk meant to be placed in front of a fireplace to keep a user's feet warm while he or she was immobile, or nearly so, while writing letters or literature. This kind of desk was very popular in prosperous homes in Europe during the 18th century and slowly disappeared during the 19th, with the gradual introduction of stoves and central heating.

In order to keep the feet and the calves exposed to the heat from the fire, the fire screen desk usually had the form of a miniature writing table or a tiny bureau a gradin, with just a few drawers beneath the desktop. As its name indicates, it had a retractable fire screen in the back to protect the user's relatively exposed face from too much heat from the fireplace. This was extremely convenient since makeup in those centuries was often wax based. The screen was usually made of a pleated or straight piece of heavy fabric, supported by crossed and sliding metallic supports. Many fire screen desks have survived the centuries, but the rather flimsy original screens have long ago wasted away. The metal supports or rods which extended the screens have fared better. As a result, when the rods are in their extended position, without the original screen which they supported, they make the fire screen desk look like some archaic form of radio, with an X shaped antenna.

A few fire screen desks had no screen per se but were simply lighter, narrower, and extremely thinner versions of the high secretary desk put on some form of permanent trestle mount. Their high form shielded the user's face from the heat of the flames while the open trestle mount at the bottom exposed the feet. They were basically a smaller version of a French form called Secretaire en portefeuille.

Often, the fire screen desk was gendered. One did not buy or ask for a fire screen desk to be made: One asked for a gentleman's fire screen desk or a lady's fire screen desk. The masculine desk was slightly heavier and plainer. The feminine desk was much smaller (light enough to be transported easily by a lady's maid) and the ornamentation could be quite complex.

The fire screen desk was also called a screen writing table, or a gentleman's screen writing table or a lady's screen writing table.

Lap desk.

As an antique the lap desk is a smaller variant of the writing slope. It is also called a writing box or a writing cabinet. In certain instances it is known as a portable desk, a term which is usually applied to larger forms. Most antique lap desks are really meant to be used on a table or some other stable surface. They are often strongly built of fine hardwoods like mahogany or walnut.
They were, in effect, the fore-times equivalent of a PDA -- that is, they supplied, to the traveller, many of the conveniences of carrying round an entire escritoire. From them has come the concept of the briefcase not just as a carrier for papers, but as a portable writing place; and thus the laptop computer.

As a modern form the lap desk is meant primarily for use in bed and other similar circumstances. It is also known as a bed desk. There is a wide variety of forms available, but as a rule it is much smaller and simpler than the antique lap desk, having at the most a small drawer or holding area for a ballpoint pen and a pencil. It is also made of much cheaper materials, save for a few craft productions.
Certain lap desks have a removable monopod, which makes them collapsible cousins to the lectern desk. Others have two short collapsible legs, so that they can be used both in bed and on a lap, when the legs are folded. Finally, some come with a built-in battery powered lamp, continuing the tradition of those antique lap desks and writing slopes which had swinging or hinged brass candle holders built in.
Most modern lap desks are considered specialty items and very few furniture dealers keep them in stock. They are present, however, in a large number of catalogues and on some commercial Web sites.

Lectern desk.

The antique is basically a lectern fitted with the conveniences needed to make writing easy, such as room for paper and writing implements. In a sense, it is a specialised and rarer form of standing desk. The term is sometimes used to describe large standing desks instead of "standing desk".
Because the antique lectern desk is smaller than most kinds of standing desks it is suitable for writing in cramped quarters, in a residence or at a workplace. Most lectern desks have a slanted top with a lip, to keep pens and paper from sliding down.

Liseuse desk.

A Liseuse desk is a medium sized writing table with a small hinged panel in the middle which can spring up by the aid of a mechanism or be propped up at a desired angle to facilitate reading, or writing on its slanted surface. Many have lateral panels which swing out on both sides to give a larger desk surface.
The name comes from "liseuse" which is the feminine form of "liseur" in French. This is often translated as "reader" but it is used normally to describe a person which really likes to read, while a simple reader is called "lecteur" or "lectrice" in the feminine gender. This is one indication of many of the original market for such desks.

The Liseuse is an antique desk form which was popular in France during the 18th century and produced again in the first part of the 19th century. It was copied in several continental countries and in the United Kingdom.

Many Liseuses are polyvalent pieces of furniture with a double or triple use. Geared towards an 18th century feminine market for the most part, they often have drawers made specially for storing toiletry and cosmetics in addition to the drawer or drawers containing paper, quill, ink and other writing implements.

Moore desk.

The "Moore Office Queen" is a massive desk, made for a sitting user. From the outside it looks, when closed, much like its competitor, the Wooton desk but it differs from it in several ways. For one, it has but a single large door to lock up the main work surface and the drawers and nooks around it, while the Wooton has two. More importantly (the manufacturer liked to boast about it) the main work surface slides in and out of the main body of the desk so that work can be stopped and the desk closed without having to put away everything, as is the case for the Wooton desk.

The "Moore Office Queen" was patented in 1878 in Indiana in the United States by the Moore Combination Desk Company.

The Office Queen has a modern descendant called the Armoire desk.

The "Moore Insurance Desk" is nearly twice as big as the "Office Queen" and combines a Standing desk and a normal "sitting" desk in a single piece of furniture. It was patented in 1882. Like the "Office Queen" it opens up by means of a single large door, and its internal work surface slides in and out. But it also has an external work surface to accommodate a standing user, on the other side of the desk. The standing user employs the "roof" of the desk of the sitting user as his (or her) work surface.

Partners desk.

A partners desk is an antique desk form which is basically two pedestal desks constructed from the start as one big desk joined at the front, for two users working while facing each other. The spelling of the term is irregular, with partner's desk and partners' desk being common variants.

This massive piece of furniture was first conceived in the United Kingdom to accommodate the work of banking partners. These gentlemen were usually senior bank officials who wished to do teamwork while keeping the convenience and the prestige of a pedestal desk.

It was an adaptation of the earlier and sometimes more massive library desk, found in the libraries of the mansions of the gentry and the nobility.

Most partners desks made in the 19th century were built of high quality woods such as oak, mahogany or walnut and finished with tooled leather inserts on top and brass fittings all around. Many reproductions have been made in the 20th century.

Pedestal desk.

A pedestal desk is usually a large free-standing desk made of a simple rectangular working surface resting on two pedestals or small cabinets of stacked drawers of one or two sizes, with plinths around the bases. Often, there is also a central large drawer above the legs and knees of the user. Sometimes, especially in the 19th century and modern examples, a "modesty panel" is placed in front, between the pedestals, to hide the legs and knees of the user from anyone else sitting or standing in front. This variation is sometimes called a "panel desk". The smaller and older pedestal desks with such a panel are sometimes called kneehole desks, and were usually placed against a wall.

From the mid-18th century onwards, a pedestal desk often has a top that is inlaid with a large panel of leather (sometimes with a gold- or blind-stamped border) or baize for a writing surface, within a cross-banded border. If the desk has a wooden top surface, it may have a pull-out lined writing drawer, or the pull-out may be fitted with a folding horse to serve as a bookrest.

Very few non-specialists call this form a pedestal desk. Most people usually refer to it as an executive desk, in contrast with the cubicle desk which is assigned to those who work under the executive. However, the term executive desk has been applied to so many desk forms as to be misleading, so the less-used but more precise "pedestal desk" has been retained here.

The pedestal desk appeared, especially in England, in the 18th century but became popular in the 19th and the 20th, overtaking the variants of the secretary desk and the writing table in sheer numbers. The French stayed faithful to the writing table or bureau plat ("flat desk"), which might have a matching paper-case (cartonnier) that stood upon it.

There were at least two precursors to the pedestal desk: The French Bureau Mazarin (a desk named for Cardinal Mazarin) of the late 17th century and the Chinese Jumu desk or scholar's desk, which Europeans knew almost entirely at second-hand, largely from illustrations on porcelain. Unlike the pedestal desk however these precursors had an incomplete stack of drawers and compartments holding up the two ends. The cases of drawers were raised about 6 to 12 inches from the floor on legs.
When a pedestal desk is doubled in size to form a nearly square working surface, and drawers are put on both sides to accommodate two users at the same time, it becomes a partners desk. Thomas Chippendale gives designs for such tables, which were generally used in libraries, as writing tables in The Gentleman and Cabinet-Maker's Director (1753-4 and 1762).

When the pedestal desk form is cut to about two thirds of its normal width, and one of the pedestals is replaced by legs, this is then called a right pedestal desk or a left pedestal desk, depending on the position of the pedestal. This kind of form is common for a student desk.

The pedestal desk is also one of the two principal forms of the big campaign desk, used by the military in days gone by. It can then be considered a portable desk in a limited way since the writing surface could be easily separated from the pedestals, to facilitate transport. The three separate elements were often fitted with large handles on the sides.

Plantation desk.

A Plantation desk is an antique desk form. It is thought to have been originally used as a mail desk by postmen. The form has been known to have been used on Southern plantations in the United States, but it is not limited to them. For some time communities of Shakers in New England built a large version of this form of desk. It was quite popular in the 19th century.

Basically, the Plantation desk is a Fall front desk with a deeper stand or bottom part. The extra space or ledge of the bottom part of the desk serves as a support for the fall front, thus eliminating the need for retractable supports. Like a normal fall front desk the work surface must be cleared of all materials in order to raise it in a vertical position and thus close off the small drawers and pigeonholes set in front of the user.

While the fall front desk evolved from placing a chest, on its side, on a stand made for it, to its exact dimensions, as is the case with the Bargueno desk, the plantation desk form was born by placing such a chest, on its side, on a table a bit too deep for it. The fall front usually settles at a slight angle once it is open, in order to give a slanted work surface to the user.
Some plantation desks have two panel doors instead of a fall front and the ledge is hence much deeper since it serves as the main desktop surface.

Rolltop desk.

A rolltop desk is a 19th century reworking of the pedestal desk with, in addition, a series of stacked compartments, shelves, drawers and nooks in front of the user, much like the Bureau a gradin or the Carlton house desk. In contrast to these the compartments and the desktop surface of a rolltop desk can be covered by means of wooden slats that roll or slide through slots in the raised sides of the desk. In that, it is a descendant in function, and partly in form, of the cylinder desk of the 18th century. It is a relative of the tambour desk whose slats retract horizontally rather than vertically.

Unlike the cylinder desk, the rolltop desk could be mass produced rather easily since the simple wooden slats could be turned out very fast in a uniform way. In contrast, the wooden section of a cylinder had to be treated with great pains to keep its form perfectly over time, lest it warp or bend, and make it impossible to retract or extend. The wooden slats of the rolltop were usually joined together by being all attached to a same cloth or leather foundation, and were thus less influenced by the problems which plagued the cylinder desk.

The rolltop desk was the mainstay of the small or medium sized office at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th. It gradually fell out of favor with the introduction of the steel desk and the coming of greater quantities of correspondence and other documents, which made the small stacked drawers and small shelves obsolete. There were just too many letters to bother folding them again and placing them in the proper slot and there was too little time to open and close all the small drawers to look for things.

Because it was produced in vast numbers and at varying levels of quality, the rolltop desk is popular in the antique market. It is also popular amongst set decorators who want to recreate the "ambiance" of an office at the turn of the previous two centuries, or during famous eras like prohibition. The rolltop has starred in many plays and movies, the most famous one being probably a movie titled His Girl Friday with Cary Grant and Rosalind Russell.

Secretaire en portefeuille.

The Secretaire en portefeuille breaks all records for slimness in desks and perhaps even in all furniture. It is an antique desk form which is usually mounted on rollers at the end of four jutting legs. The legs in turn support what looks like an oversize vertically mounted wooden pizza box. This is a cabinet a few inches thick, with barely enough space in it for the raised desktop surface and a few pens and sheets of paper disposed vertically.

In short, the secretaire en portefeuille is much like a Fall front desk which would have been reduced in depth to a bare minimum. Like the Fall front desk and the Secretary desk the secretaire en portefeuille's desktop lifts up to cover internal areas and must thus be cleared of all work before closing up. By its mobile nature and its relatively light weight it was sometimes used as a Fire screen desk.It was also sometimes known by that name.

Its name comes from the French word for wallet: Portefeuille. This is probably because it has the same proportions as many kinds of wallets and it opens up a bit like some of them.
Modern day cabinet makers and furniture designers have sometimes created contemporary versions of the secretaire en portefeuille, eschewing the florid designs of the antique ones.

Secretary desk.

A secretary desk is made of a base of wide drawers topped by a desk with a hinged desktop surface, which is in turn topped by a bookcase usually closed with a pair of doors, often made of glass. The whole is usually a single, tall and heavy piece of furniture, not meant to be disassembled after manufacture, no matter what problems might be incurred in moving it from point A to B.

Like the slant top desk the main work surface is a hinged piece of wood which lifts up to a vertical position and is tilted to an angle of about 45 degrees or so towards the bulk of the desk in order to enclose secondary work surfaces such as small shelves, small drawers and nooks stacked in front of the user. Thus, like the Wooton desk, the fall front desk and others with a hinged desktop, and unlike closable desks with an unmovable desktop like the rolltop desk or the cylinder desk all documents and various items must be removed from the work surface before closing up.

To those not used to it, the secretary desk looks like a mutant made up of a mix between a commode-dresser, a slant top desk and a book case. Many however are used to it since it is one of the most common antique desk forms and it has been endlessly reproduced and copied for home use in the last hundred years. Among home desk forms, it is the tallest, biggest and heaviest of all, if we exclude wall units and modular desks which can be disassembled for moving, or some of the biggest of the armoire desks, which are usually delivered unassembled.

The correct or the most common correct term for the secretary desk described here, is the secretary and bookcase. Unfortunately there is no unanimity on this term, even among specialists. In Europe the same piece of funiture has been called bureau and bookcase and then desk and bookcase. Also, the general public usually calls this kind of desk a secretary, or secretaire. In a taxonomic sense one could sometimes say that all desks which have the capacity to close off the working surface are secretaries, while all others are simply desks, but such a division would be too broad to be useful. To add to the confusion certain forms of the secretary desk are called escritoire, usually when the bookcase section is covered with glazed panels instead of wooden doors, but the term escritoire is also sometimes used to define a very portable Writing slope, which is it at the other extreme in terms of bulk and weight.
When a secretary desk is cut in half vertically, so to speak, to provide a secretary desk half as wide as usual on one side and a glassed door cabinet on the other, this big piece of furniture is called a side by side secretary. The term is also applied sometimes to very big pieces of furniture made up of three elements, one of them being a half wide secretary desk. Until recently there was a good example of a side by side secretary in the second floor office of the historic home of John Muir in Martinez, California, U.S.A.. The attic of this home also had a good example of a Portable desk.

On most antique secretaries and also on most reproductions the user has to pull out two small wooden planks called sliders in order to support the desktop, before actually turning the desktop from its closed, angled, position to its normal horizontal working position. However, in quite a few of the antique versions a system of internal gears and/or or levers connected both to the sliders and the hinged desktop automatically pushed the sliders out at the same time as the user pulled on the closed desktop to put it in its horizontal position. When the user closed it afterwards, the sliders would then retract automatically. In such a case, the secretary is also known as a Mechanical desk like many other desk forms which have some sort of mechanism pushing out elements of the desk and then pulling them back in automatically.

A secretary desk is generally not used by a person with the title of secretary, since this kind of desk is an antique form which is now extremely rare in the modern office, where a secretary (frequently called an administrative assistant) normally works.

Slant top desk.

The slant top desk can be considered in some ways as the ancestor or the little brother, of the secretary desk for it is for all practical purposes a secretary desk without the massive bookcase on top of it. It can also be considered as the descendant, in form, of the desk on a frame, which was a form of portable desk in earlier eras.

In some places the slant top desk is known as a "bureau" desk, and in others it goes under the name of slope-front desk. In the United States, the slant top desk is sometimes called a Governor Winthrop desk, in memory of John Winthrop, the 17th century governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. The slant top desk is also called a slant front desk.

Like the Wooton desk, the fall front desk and others with a hinged desktop (and unlike closable desks with an unmovable desktop like the rolltop desk or the cylinder desk) all documents and various items must be removed from the work surface of the slant-top desk before closing up.
The slant-top desk has been handcrafted in a variety of styles, the most famous being probably the block front seashell desk of the 18th century which was popular among the well-to-do of Colonial America.

The slant-top desk has also been mass produced in a great quantity of sub-forms and materials. For instance, some slant top desks have very crude chains or levers to hold the desktop in an open working position, while others have elegant sliders which are manually or automatically extended to give support.

Spinet desk.

A spinet desk is an antique desk form which has the exterior shape of a slightly higher than usual writing table, fitted with a single drawer under the whole length of the flat top surface. The spinet desk is so named because when closed it resembles a spinet, a musical instrument of the harpsichord family.
This single drawer, however, is a dummy. It is a hinged panel which is meant to be folded in, at the same time as half of the hinged top surface is folded back on to the top of the other half, revealing an inner desktop surface of normal height, with small drawers and pigeonholes in the back. In certain spinet desks the inner desktop surface can be drawn out a few inches, adding working space.
The image of the front of the spinet desk shows it in a closed position while the image of the side shows it in a partly open position, just before the hinged mobile part of the top is placed on the fixed part of the top.

By this capacity of hiding or revealing the main working area the spinet desk could be said to be a smaller, less obtrusive cousin of the rolltop desk and the cylinder desk. Like them, and unlike the secretary desk or the fall front desk, it can be closed up without disturbing too much the paperwork and various documents and implements left on the main desktop surface.

Standing desk.

A standing desk is both an antique desk and a modern desk form conceived for writing and/or reading while standing up or while sitting on a high stool. The term stand-up or stand up desk is also used. Standing desks were popular in the homes and offices of the rich, during the 18th century and much of the 19th.

While most modern desks are 30 inches (76 cm.) high and most antique desks 29 inches high (73.7 cm), there is no such average for standing desks. Users of a "sitting desk" are fairly immobile so it is relatively easy to adjust the height of a seat to compensate for variations in the individual height of the users. Users of a standing desk move around a bit more, so it is not practical to have them stand on a small pedestal or some other object. Thus, standing desks tend to vary greatly in height.
It was common in the past to have a standing desk made to measure to the height of the user, since only the rich could afford desks. One way to go around this problem a bit, when one had many users for a single desk, was to give an angle or slant to the writing surface, as was common on the typical drawing table. The other alternative, to produce a desk with adjustable legs, was less popular, but it was frequent enough to give birth to a precise desk form, the "table à tronchin" or "table à la tronchin".
The modern solution is presently found in the ergonomic standing desk, which can be adjusted to the height of most standing persons, and offers other possible adjustments, as is the case for a typical ergonomic desk.

Manufacturers of fixed height standing desks and ergonomic standing desks point to several studies showing reduced back injuries or less back pain for the users of standing desks.
Most standing desks have an open frame with few or little drawers, and a footrail (similar to those seen at a bar) to reduce back pain. It is more practical to make a hinged desktop which can be lifted to give access to a small cabinet placed underneath it, despite the problems this layout can cause to objects left on it. This way the user can store or retrieve papers and writing implements without bending or standing back from the desk.

There are many specialized standing desks such as certain variations of the telephone desk and certain types of wall mounted desks.

Tambour desk.

A tambour desk is a desk with desktop-based drawers and pigeonholes, in a way resembling a bit that of a bureau a gradin. The small drawers and nooks are covered, when required, by reeded or slatted shutters which usually retract in the two sides, left and right. It is a flatter and "sideways" version of the rolltop desk.

Unlike the rolltop desk, the tambour desk uses straight, perfectly vertical rows of shutters, and the work surface rests on a few drawers, which in turn are supported by short legs instead of pedestals. In addition, half of the desktop folds back on itself when not in use. The desktop is supported by sliders, like a secretary desk or a slant top desk when it is unfolded.

The tambour desk is an antique form indigenous to the United States of America, and should not be confused with the British Tambour writing table.

Telephone desk.

The telephone desk is the smallest kind of fixed desk. Its traditional role is to provide a working surface barely large enough to write notes while speaking on the telephone, and in some cases to support the telephone and maybe hold telephone books. In early generations of telephones the phone apparatus itself had a small desk built-in. This was most common in wall mounted telephones of the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century.

The original illustrations done for this article show front and side views of such an antique wall phone with a small slanted desk surface fitted with two ridges to keep paper and pencil from falling to the floor.

The telephone desk has usually been a domestic piece of furniture. In an office a telephone would normally be placed on any form of desk, as close as possible to its users.
In the last 50 years of the 20th century a domestic telephone desk would usually be placed next to a phone located in an entryway or a small lobby. The telephone desk is rapidly becoming an antique form, with the widespread use of the cellular telephone, and the portable phone, which permit complete liberty of movement and make note-taking possible on any table or desk in a home.

In the past any telephone booth or call box used to have a tiny built-in desk surface for the convenience of customers. An increase in vandalism and a higher concern for costs has led to the gradual elimination of these minuscule desk surfaces.

Trestle desk.

The antique trestle desk is usually very much like the Writing table desk form, which offers a simple flat desktop surface with a few drawers underneath it. Unlike the writing table the trestle desk is supported by two legs instead of four, and the legs are designed to be dismantled easily in order to store or move the desk efficiently. More precisely, the two legs are two strong side supports which branch out in two feet each (for a total of four) at the bottom.

Some antique trestle desks are fitted with small cubby holes and nooks or small drawers at the extremity of the work surface, and thus resemble a Bureau a gradin.
As with most antique desk forms, this trestle desk surface is usually 29 inches (73.7 cm) from the floor.

Typewriter desk.

A Typewriter desk is an antique desk form meant to hold a typewriter in an efficient position for the typist. This position is usually a few inches lower than the 29 inch (73.7 cm) height of the typical antique desktop.

The first generations of typewriters, in the last 25 years of the 19th century and the first decades of the 20th, spurred the invention and production of a great number of forms of typewriter desks.
All of the early typewriter desks were extremely sturdy affairs since the early typewriters were not electric and could be operated only by constant pounding on the keys by the user. The pounding could have gradually destroyed several traditional desks.

The early typewriter desks often had in common some form of device or method for hiding the typewriter or getting it out of the way within the desk, by swivelling it or turning it. In those days typewriters were very costly machines which one tried to protect from dust or accidents . They were also very ungainly or eve

n ugly to those unfamiliar with them, and getting them out of sight was useful for aesthetic reasons.
After World War I typewriters gradually became less costly and the typewriter desk was more or less standardised in two forms: One was a small mobile desk incorporating four wheels with brakes, the other was an "L" shaped desk with a "normal" height section for reading and handwriting and a lower section for the typewriter.

Wooton desk.

The Wooton desk is a variation of the Fall front desk. It is the embodiment (in the field of desk design and construction) of the phenomenon of conspicuous consumption which swept over moneyed society in the United States at the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century, and was described by Thorstein Veblen in his book The Theory of the Leisure Class.

Wooton desks were probably not the costliest desks in series production, but they were possibly the ones with the most drawers, nooks and crannies imaginable. Only a few examples of the Cupboard desk had more divisions, but they were of a very utilitarian different style, and were often produced by the very families or communities which used them, such as the Shakers. The Armoire desk is the closest modern relative to the Wooton desk in its size and form. But the armoire desk is even bigger and larger than the Wooton, and despite the use of rich veneers by some makers, it is a much more practical piece of furniture.

An Indianapolis, Indiana entrepreneur (who was later to become a Protestant preacher) called William S. Wooton obtained patents for his design and established a company in 1870. Production continued till about 1884.

The Wooton desk which is the subject of this article is their better known secretary desk. The Wooton desk company also produced a so-called rotary desk, which is in fact a pedestal desk whose pedestals have segments which turn on themselves to expose more drawers and nooks.

The Wooton secretary desk usually rests on a four legged quadruped support equipped with casters. The main body of the desk is filled with a dozen or several dozens (depending on the model) of small drawers and nooks for papers and small objects.

As in a "secretaire a abattant" or in a Fall front desk the main working surface or desktop is hinged and lifted completely from the horizontal to the vertical in order to lock up the desk, forcing the user to gather up and store all papers and implements beforehand. Unlike the secretaire a abattant however, the Wooton desktop hides only a few of the small drawers and nooks. The real lockup is done by closing two massive hinged panels which are themselves as deep as the desk and are like it filled with small drawers and nooks of all sizes.

The Wooton desk was introduced at the end of the 19th century, at a time when office work was changing in a drastic fashion with an increase in paperwork that led to the introduction of filing cabinets, among other things. The white-collar worker invaded the office in huge numbers. The new reservoir based fountain pen and the typewriter were used to produce greater quantities of office documents than ever before. In this context desks which required users to fold and title each letter or document and place it in a pigeon hole, or small nook, were simply not efficient. It was faster to place an unfolded piece of paper in a folder and place the folder in a file cabinet or file drawer.
In a sense the Wooton desk was obsolete just as it was born and its biggest selling point was probably snob appeal in owning a complex desk with so many divisions and an abundance of ornaments.
Wooton desks in good condition are sometimes sold in auctions for the same price as a top of the line luxury automobile.

Writing armchair.

The Writing armchair has an antique and a modern form. In its antique form it is known as a writing armchair in the United States and as a tablet armchair in the United Kingdom. It is more often than not a Windsor style armchair with a circular or oval pad or tablet replacing the right arm or mounted above it. Many versions have a drawer built under the pad, to hold writing implements. Other versions have such a drawer under the seat.

On some versions the pad is on a hinge, in order to fold it down and facilitate storage, or simply take up less space in a room. In this case it is often called a drop leaf chair, and becomes a close cousin to the mechanical desk.

In its modern form it is, most of the time, the most compact rendition of a school desk or a student desk, and it is manufactured by the millions in metal and plastic. It is available in a very wide variety of sizes to suit the changing needs of growing children. It also differs from the antique form by being relatively ambidextrous: The tablet or pad is available for the right arm or the left arm, to also suit those who write with their left hand. Unlike the antique form the arm with no pad is usually completely absent, to ease entry in the chair in the crowded conditions of a schoolroom or lecture hall.
Modern designers have offered several contemporary renditions of the writing armchair or the drop leaf chair, but the form has never been very popular in homes.

Writing desk.

A writing desk is a sort of compact office. It has a top that closes to hide current work, make the room look neat, maintain privacy and protect the work. Traditionally, they are for writing letters by hand, but, of course, modern ones are designed for lap-top computers. They are typically too small for most desk-top computers. The closing top may have joints and roll, or may simply fold closed. The writing surface (or place for lap-top) typically folds down (perhaps being the lid) or slides out, to preserve the compact size when closed. They often have small drawers or "pigeon holes".

Writing table.

A writing table (French bureau plat) has a series of drawers directly under the surface of the table, to contain writing implements, so that it may serve as a desk. Antique versions have the usual divisions for the inkpot, the blotter and the sand or powder tray in one of the drawers, and a surface covered with leather or some other material less hostile to the Quill or the Fountain pen than simple hard wood.
In form, a writing table is a Pedestal desk without the pedestals, having legs instead to hold it up. This is why such tables are sometimes called leg desks.

The writing table is often called a "Bureau plat" when it is done in a French style such as Louis XVI, Art Nouveau, etc. When a writing table is supported by two legs instead of four, it is usually called a Trestle desk.

The writing table is also sometimes called a library table, because it was often placed in a rich individual's library. This was the room in a house where a gentleman would keep literature and also do his business transactions. The library often housed, in addition, a round desk called a Rent table and sometimes a Drawing table. The term library table is sometimes applied indiscriminately to a wide variety of desk forms, in addition to being used for writing tables. Let the scholar or the buyer be wary.
Some writing tables have additional drawers built above the surface. In this case they are often called Bureau a gradin instead of writing table, unless they have a more specific form, such as that of a Carlton house desk.

As with many other desk forms antique writing tables were sometimes built with what was, at the time, a complex mechanism of gears and levers to make sections slide out or pop up when certain panels were pulled. In this case one sometimes called them a Mechanical desk.

Campaign desk.

A Campaign desk is an antique desk of normal size which was used by officers and their staffs in rear areas during a military campaign.

The campaign desk was usually the private property of the officer, as was his uniform and other military implements. It was in general handcrafted by a master cabinet maker according to the officer's wishes or following traditions for such desks. The desk forms varied greatly, but nearly all had as a common trait several features which made it easy to transport them from one campaign posting to another.
For instance, a campaign desk version of a traditional pedestal desk form would have strong but removable fittings making it easy to break up the desk in three pieces: Two pedestals and one desktop surface. Each piece would have brass or iron handles mounted on it to facilitate handling.

Campaign desk variations of the antique Writing table seem to have been rather frequent. This form was usually in one piece, with strong handles and two pairs of foldable legs.

A smaller version of such a transportable writing table could be considered to be more a field desk than a campaign desk, since it could be moved frequently from one battlefield's rear area to another's as the war went on.

Any campaign desk is in a sense also a portable desk.

Computer desk.

The ergonomic desk and related computer desk are furniture pieces designed to comfortably and aesthetically provide a working surface and house or conceal office equipment including computers, peripherals and cabling for office and home-office users.

The ergonomic desk is a modern desk form which, like the adjustable drawing table or drafting table, offers mechanical adjustments for the placement of its elements in order to maximize user comfort and efficiency. The ergonomic desk is usually a "stand-alone" piece of furniture allowing access to the adjustment mechanisms. Some ergonomic desks have a sufficiently large desktop height adjustment to create either a "sit-down" desk or a standing desk, which allows the user to work while standing. The ergonomic desk is usually a close companion to the ergonomic chair.

The ergonomic desk originated with the beginning of the field of human factors or ergonomics after World War II. Legislation stating minimal requirements for furniture used by office workers referred to ergonomic desk standards.

The most common form of the computer desk is a variant of the ergonomic desk, having an adjustable keyboard tray and sufficient desktop space for handwriting. Provisions for a monitor shelf and holes for routing cables are integrated in the design, making it easier to connect the computer components together. Space is provided for a keyboard, mouse, monitor, printer and speakers. The typical armoire desk is usually sold with these features and better cubicle desk designs include holes, trays and shelves for computer systems.

There is a seemingly endless variety of computer desk shapes and forms. Large multi-student computer desks configured in rows are designed to house dozens of computer systems in novel ways while also facilitating wiring, general maintenance, theft prevention and vandalism reduction. Small rolling lectern desks or computer carts with tiny desktops provide just enough room for a laptop computer and a mouse pad. Computer desks are typically mass-produced and require some self-assembly. Local crafts persons can build desks to order or produce unique designs.

The computer itself is normally separate from the desk. The desk is designed generically to hold a typically sized computer, monitor and accessories. Cabling must be carefully routed through the channels and access openings provided by the desk design. A few computers are built within a desk made specially for them, like the British iDesk. The computer is not removable and cannot be separated from the desk. Office of the future proposed other integrated designs.

A rolling computer table configuration offers mobility and improved access in situations where a desk is not convenient. Gyratory computer tables can be used over a bed. Modular computer tables separate user interface elements from the computing and network connection, allowing more placement flexibility. The modules are connected via wireless technology.

Field desk.

A field desk is a portable desk which is meant to be used in rear areas not too far from a battlefield and moved around rather frequently in difficult conditions. It is in contrast to the campaign desk, which is usually heavier and meant for areas further in the rear.

The field desk is both an antique and a modern desk form. The antique form is usually made of fine woods and brass fittings. The smaller versions can often be confused with the civilian writing slope. This is quite understandable, because during the 18th and 19th centuries they were often used interchangeably. There is a wide variety of antique field desks, ranging from small suitcase-sized ones to fairly big chests, like the one general Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson used during the American Civil War in the United States. Until recently, General Jackson's desk was exhibited in the museum of the Virginia Military Institute (VMI). At one point, VMI gave a licence to a furniture manufacturer to produce copies of the desk, available on the web.

The modern form of the field desk is made of resistant plastic composites and steel or aluminium. It is built to NATO standards or to the standards of national armies. There are several variants, but the most common one is a nearly cubic chest whose lid is removed to expose internal drawers and then reattached on the side to serve as a desktop.

Games table desk.

A Games table desk is an antique desk form which combines the type of surface required for writing with a surface etched or veneered in the pattern of a given board game. It also provides sufficient storage space for writing implements and a separate space for storing game accessories such as counters. It is often called a "games table" or game table, which leads to confusion with pieces of furniture (antique or modern) which are built specifically for gaming only, with no intention or provision for use as a desk.

With the gradual creation of specialized rooms in the homes of the nobility and of the richer members of society during the 18th century, specialized furniture followed. Instead of having large halls which could be transformed in a wink into a dining room, ballroom, or audience chamber (thanks to big, sturdy transportable furniture), the trend now was towards a large number of relatively smaller rooms in which relatively smaller and more delicate specialized furniture stayed in permanence.

Just before the French revolution furniture out-specialized itself. Only the extremely rich could afford to have items of furniture for every possible activity: A dresser for cosmetics, a commode for toiletry, a lady's desk for writing during most of the year and a lady's Fire screen desk for cold evenings, equivalent desks for the gentleman, a game table for chess, another one for checkers, a billiards table, and so on. This is when furniture giving dual use or triple use became popular among those who were merely rich and could not afford having cabinet makers constantly making new items for their homes. One of the most popular of these combinations was the Games table desk.

The Games table desk has a great variety of forms. Like most of the desks of that period it was built on commission to whatever new design or modification of an old design the customer might want. Most of them have in common a double sided top. This top is covered on one side with a gaming board and on the other side with tooled leather or some other material suitable for placing paper on it and writing with a quill. The top board is sometimes attached loosely and sometimes very securely to the main body of the desk, and it is sometimes hinged. Some other times there is not one but several top boards, kept stacked on one another, each having a different board game design on it.

Mechanical desk.

A mechanical desk is usually an antique desk type which was produced during the 18th or the 19th century. At one extreme we can find such desks furnished with a multitude of panels that swing out while stacks of small drawers pop up when a user lowers or extracts the main writing surface or desktop from a closed position, thanks to some well placed levers and/or gears. At the other extreme we find a mechanically simple desk like the Wooton desk whose two panels open up separately by hand and whose desktop is also opened in a separate manual operation, without exploiting any gears or levers. The term is used quite loosely.

There was an explosion of mechanical desk designs in the second part of the 18th century. This came at the same time as a renewed interest in smaller domestic furniture in the homes of the rich, and the general introduction in their homes of all kinds of new mechanical devices such as small clocks and wood turning tools. These devices are described in the Encyclopédie of 1772. The devices and the interest in them were a result of the technological ferment which arose in the United Kingdom during its Industrial revolution, and gradually spread to Europe.

The mechanical desk fad gradually passed away at the beginning of the 19th century. By the middle of the 19th century desk mechanisms were mostly simple affairs meant to extract or retract sliders or supports from a secretary desk, to give but one example.

The windows that can pop up all over a virtual desk in a graphical user interface or GUI are in a sense direct descendants of the more complicated of the 18th century mechanical desks. On the whole however, these virtual windows seem to be more efficient in getting useful work done.

Metamorphic library steps.

Metamorphic Library Steps are a type of archaic dual-use furniture, consisting of a small folding staircase that can be transformed into chair or desk form (such as a small writing table or library table). In desk form, it can also be considered a mechanical desk.

Metamorphic library steps were first built in the mid-18th century for the private libraries and offices of the European nobility or the Bourgeoisie. The number of specialised rooms in the typical manor was increasing, so existing ones, like the library, had to use space more efficiently. Consequently, these rooms often had high ceilings and floor-to-ceiling bookshelves. The topmost shelves were difficult to reach, so movable library steps or library stairs were created as a form of domestic furniture.

Portable desk.

The portable desk has not one but many forms. In a sense, the portable desk is a long-lost ancestor of the portable computer, and the modern laptop could be considered an atavistic grandchild of the 19th-century Lap desk.

Medieval and renaissance portables

It seems that all desks were portable to some extent, from medieval times to the end of the Renaissance, with the exception of built-in tables and inclined ranks of desks found in places such as the scriptorium or library of a monastery. This was due to the itinerant nature of medieval kingship and the similar conditions that prevailed in lesser administrations under dukes or counts. There was rarely a single capital for a kingdom, and the monarch and his (or her) court would travel periodically between several seats of power during the year, taking precious goods and quite a lot of furniture with them. The traditional French words for furniture - "le mobilier" and "les meubles" - reflect this. They describe those goods that are "mobile", in contrast to those that are not: "les immeubles", that is, buildings.
The desks we see in medieval woodcuts and other illustrations of the period were massive affairs, but they seemed to be capable of haulage by several men or of being made of pieces that could be knocked down for transport. The Trestle desk was a common form for the period. It was usually fitted with a slanted top.

In the homes of lesser nobles and certain members of the merchant classes the portable furniture never travelled very far. Most domestic life took place in a single large hall. Furniture was constantly shifted around, stored and often disassembled to suit the role the great room was playing at a particular time in the day or the month.

Varguenos and bible boxes and other chests

There are two survivors of these medieval and renaissance forms: The rather large Bargueno desk or Vargueno, a chest desk from 16th-century Spain, and the relatively small Bible box, which probably had a later origin. These two forms are usually not employed as portable desks any more, but they are bought and sold as antiques or as reproductions and usually valued as much for their monetary worth or their aesthetic appeal as for their practical use.

The lap desk appeared sometime in the 17th century and became a stylish accessory for travelling gentlemen. Like the Bible box, the lap desk was usually small enough to be carried on a horse or by a gentleman's butler or valet. From the 18th century onwards, however, it grew in size and became too heavy to be used comfortably on a lap. Several regional variations, such as the French Escritoire were developed.

At the other end of the scale, the 17th century saw the appearance of several other kinds of "chest" desks, such as those destined for use in ships or for getting paperwork done during a military campaign. These were usually known as the Campaign desk and the Field desk.
Ubiquity kills off the portables

Most portable desks gradually disappeared during the 19th century, as useful day-to-day writing tools. The introduction of mass literacy during that period, the invention of cheaper and more efficient writing implements, and the mass production of furniture made most portable desks redundant.

With the advent of clean writing surfaces in every home or place of business and of the small and clean pocket fountain pen and the pencil, a gentleman did not need to include a lap desk in his luggage. There was no need for a container for the quill, the blotter, and the sand tray or for the writing surface this container could offer. Ships eventually were constructed with built-in desks, making the portable desk obsolete in maritime environments.

School desk.

The school desk occurs in two main types: the tiny chair and desk combinations made for pre-schoolers, and the larger institutional desks installed in a typical school room.

Home desks for tiny folk

The tiny chair and desk combinations usually are marketed for domestic use, as a crafts activity center for pre-literate children. This kind of desk gives them a play surface more suited for their height than most of the furniture in a normal home. The drawers and nooks partly mimic the conveniences of adult desks and are designed to hold crayons and other play materials. These school desks are often constructed of brightly colored parts of sturdy plastic, with rounded edges.

These tiny school desks are made in a huge variety of forms. Some copy the style of the pedestal desk that adults use while others look like a writing table, and still others offer strange shapes.
When children grow older and taller and when their schooling requires them to do homework, they graduate to a student desk, which is better suited for serious reading and writing.

Desks for schoolchildren

The institutional school desk is marketed directly to schools and sold in bulk orders.
This kind of school desk is expected to suffer extremely rough treatment over the years and is normally built accordingly. Many of the school desks which survive this treatment end up getting sold in lots at the end of a certain period, and can thus reach the antiques market. These antique school desks often end up in homes, for decorative or sentimental reasons.

Early school desks were built of wood. The transition to steel occurred during the early 20th century.
These institutional school desks are made in a huge variety of forms. Some are versions of the ergonomic desk or the computer desk, joined in rows and interconnected with wiring, while others are very simple individual writing tables.

Student desk.

A student desk can be any desk form meant for use by a student. Usually the term designates a small pedestal desk or writing table constructed for use by a teenager or a pre-teen in his or her room at home. More often than not it is a pedestal desk, with only one of the two pedestals and about two thirds of the desk surface. Such desks are sometimes called left pedestal desks or right pedestal desks depending on the position of the single pedestal. The height of the desk is usually a bit lower than is the case for normal adult desks.

The desks are usually mass produced in steel or wood and sold on the consumer market. In addition there is a wide variety of plans available for woodworking enthusiasts.
There are many novel forms of student desks made to maximize the relatively restricted area available in a child's room. One of the most common is the bunk bed desk.

Bureau du Roi.

The Bureau du Roi ('King's desk'), known in France as the Secrétaire à cylindre de Louis XV ("Louis XV roll-top secretary"), is the name given to the richly ornamented royal Cylinder desk whose construction was started under Louis XV and finished under Louis XVI of France. It is the most lavishly decorated desk ever made, surpassing even the huge decorative "Kunstschrank" secretary desks of Germany.
The Bureau du Roi was probably started in 1760, when the commission was formally announced. Its first designer was Jean-François Oeben, the master cabinet maker of the royal arsenal. The first step in its construction was the fabrication of an extremely detailed miniature model in wax. The full scale desk was finished in 1769 by his successor, Jean Henri Riesener, who had married Oeben's widow. Made for the new Cabinet du Roi at the Palace of Versailles, it was transferred to the Louvre Museum in Paris after the French Revolution, but has been returned to the Palace of Versailles in the 20th century where it stands again in the room where it was standing before the Revolution, i.e. the Cabinet intérieur du Petit Appartement ("Inner study of the Private Apartments"), the famous study room where kings Louis XV and Louis XVI carried out their daily work, and inside which King Louis XVI took the decision to support the American insurgents in 1777. Secret diplomatic papers were kept inside the secretary's secret drawers, whose only key the king always carried with him.

The desk is covered with intricate marquetry of a wide variety of fine woods. In an oval reserve at the center of its 'public' side, away from the king himself, is the marquetry head of Silence, with forefinger to lips, a reminder of the discretion required in the king's business. Gilt-bronze moldings of plaques, statuettes, miniature busts and vases, even integral scrolling gilt-bronze candle stands, further adorn the surfaces of the desk. The original design was to have a miniature bust of Louis XV on top, but it was replaced by Minerva after his death in 1770.

The creation of the Bureau du Roi symbolizes the culmination of nearly a century of efforts in the application of mercantilism in France. This was started by Jean-Baptiste Colbert in the 17th century, to promote French manufactures of all kinds, in luxury goods as well as commodities. All the decorative arts were targeted under this strategy, and cabinet-making was no exception. Under his plan, luxury goods would serve as examples for inciting the quality manufacture of lesser products. Within the domain of luxury goods royal masterpieces would serve as examples at a higher level.
Symbolically, Versailles lay at the center of monarchic France. At the heart of Louis XIV's Baroque Versailles stood the Chambre du Roi, the king's bedroom, centered upon the King's Bed behind a railing, and its morning rituals of the lever du Roi (the King's arising), all framing the person of the king in a hieratic canopy of estate, attended by the recently-tamed nobles. By contrast, at the heart of Louis XV's Rococo Versailles of the mid-18th century, with its more domestic rituals, stood this functioning symbol of a benevolent autocrat, attended by his bureaucratic ministers, now largely drawn from the legally-trained upper middle class.

Desk of Books.

The desk of books is a full size sculpture of a pedestal desk by the Venetian artist Livio De Marchi. Like the bureau du Roi it was created as a work of art and is valued as such. But like that most famous of French desks it also has everything necessary to support any form of functional desk work, including several drawers and a cabinet.

Like all of De Marchi's "book" sculptures the desk looks as if it has been made out of giant books. The top of the desk looks like an enormous book while the pedestals which hold it up, on either side, look as if they are big books piled or set up on each other in what seems like a precarious fashion. De Marchi also made a "book chair" to go with it. Since none of these works are painted the grain of the wood in which it was sculpted is very visible, betraying the material and making a sharp contrast with the high degree of realism with which the books are sculpted. It is thus an exploration of Wood as a medium.
The desk of books is made mostly with hand tools such as chisels, like most of De Marchi's works. It is both a piece of Wood carving and Cabinet making.



Een Amerikaanse zakenman Henry C. Yeiser zette een meubilairfabriek genoemd op de Dossiers Co van de Globe in Cincinnati in 1882. De fabriek begon verwerkende bureau en meubilair in te dienen. In ongeveer de zelfde tijd, werd een meubilairfabriek genoemd Co Wernicke opgezet in Grand Rapids, Michigan. Een paar jaar later ontwierp Co Wernicke een boekenkast, die uit de verschillende met maat componenten van het glaskabinet bestond. Door deze componenten te stapelen bovenop en naast elkaar, kon u verschillende wholes tot stand brengen.

Henry C. Yeiser werd geinteresseerd in dit ontwerp en kocht de fabriek van Co Wernicke. Met de nieuwe eigenaar, werd de fabriek anders genoemd Co van Wernicke van de Globe. In December 1892 patenteerde Henry C. Yeiser dit unieke boekenkastontwerp. Dit boekenkastontwerp was een reusachtig succes en wekte ook duidelijke belangstelling in Europa. Tegen het eind van de 19de eeuw, begon een Engelse meubilairfabrikant Thomas Turner het ontwerp in Engeland op de markt te brengen. Het bedrijf werd genoemd de Globe Wernicke Co Ltd. Op tijd, breidde Co van Wernicke zich van de Globe ook aan Canada, Frankrijk, België en Oostenrijk uit.

Met het ontwerpen grote succes werden verscheidene andere meubilairfabrikanten geinteresseerd in het product en die om beginnen om gelijkaardige ontwerpen te vervaardigen. Het opmerkelijkst hiervan in Europa was: Shannon Registrator, Muntachtig en Gunn in Engeland; Augustus. Zeiss & Co (de recentere Unie van Zeiss) en Soennecken in Duitsland en Lingel in Hongarije.

In Finland, begon Billnäs Bruk Aktiebolag Amerikaans stijlkantoormeubilair in 1909 te vervaardigen. Een significant deel van deze productlijn was het de boekenkastontwerp van Wernicke van de Globe. Billnäs Bruk voegde met Oy Fiskars Ab op 1 van Januari 1959 samen, maar bleef meubilair onder de naam Billnäs Bruk vervaardigen. Het maken van Amerikaans stijlkantoormeubilair beëindigde in recente '60s en de meubilairfabriek werd gesloten in 1970, BOKNAS

Otto Heinrich Louis Wernicke in 1889 vond een het stapelen systeem voor eenheden uit, die als snel systeem om opslagplanken op te bouwen worden bedoeld. Het ontwerp van dit opslagrek - dat van naakte planken wordt gemaakt - vormde de basis van de recentere bekende Globe-Wernicke boekenkasttechniek. Het eerste octrooi voor dit opschortende systeem werd verleend in 1892 en niet lang na het Bedrijf Wernicke, in Norwood, een voorstad van Cincinnati in de V.S., kwam te voorschijn. De populariteit van de toenmalige bekende Wernicke boekenkasteenheden nam zeer snel toe. Met frequente reclame in de Verslaggever van de Wet van het Noorden Westelijke werden deze eenheden spoedig gegeven de bijnaam de Boekenkasten van de Advocaat. Maar de notarissen, de advocaten en de ministers vonden ook het het stapelen boekenkastsysteem een aantrekkelijk voordeel. In 1899 nam de bedrijfbol het bedrijf Wernicke over. Het bedrijf van de Globe had zich reeds om één ontwikkeld te zijn van de grootste producenten van archiefsystemen, archiefkasten en pigeon-hole het opschorten. Het bedrijf wist dat met dit boekenreksysteem het tot een welkome toevoeging aan hun bestaande portefeuille van producten zou leiden. Dank aan de stijgende populariteit van de eenheden konden zij een begin maken bij het raffineren van hen. Aldus begonnen zij gebruikend hen in venstervoorzijden te hangen die stof helpen verhinderen en zodra het decoratieve scherpen en het behandelde ridging werden toegevoegd werden zij ook gebruikt op ontvangstgebieden. Als resultaat van dit, ontwikkelde het Globe-Wernicke boekenreksysteem een bredere markt.


De productie van de Globe-Wernicke boekenkasteenheden werd niet alleen verbonden met de V.S.. In Londen dat zij ook hen zijn begonnen te vervaardigen en dientengevolge zij ook werden een groot succes in Victorian Engeland. Dank ook aan de verspreiding wereldwijd van de Britse kolonies, mensen kwam zelfs over de stapelbare boekenrekken in India. De succesvolle producten worden altijd geïmiteerd. Nadat het eerste octrooi (na 20 jaar) verliep, verschenen de eerste exemplaren. Dit was niet alleen het geval in de V.S. en Engeland, maar de copieën werden ook gemaakt in Duitsland en Scandinavië. Een groot verschil tussen deze exemplaren en originele eenheden Wernicke was dat de voorname exemplaren slechts tot de productie van een paar ontwerpen beperkt waren. Globe-Wernicke was enige wie een rijk assortiment van variërende diepten, breedten, hoogten en stijlen leverde. Elk nieuw product was onmiddellijk gepatenteerd, dat betekende het bedrijf Globe-Wernicke een stap voor de concurrentie bleef. Het is ook dankzij de slogan "het met uw zaken kweekt en uw zaken groeien met het", die Globe-Wernicke om één van de grootste fabrieken van zijn tijd kweekte te zijn.


Naast de Standaardlijn ` ' van Globe-Wernicke, waren er ook de eenvoudigere Universele Stijl en de Boekenkast van de luxe Ideale Eenheid met stained-glass, pilasters op balusters en een geribbelde dekking met de bladeren van knipselacanthus. Alle kasten werden geleverd in eik en mahonie. Wat als eenvoudige stapelbare opschortende eenheden begon, soms omgezet in een volledige bibliotheek, met zo velen verdeel zoals hoekmodellen in variërende grootte. In advertenties, werden de kasten met de term het "Idee van de Eenheid", geprijst het basisconcept het opschortende systeem helpen uitspreiden. Met de Boekenkast van de luxe Ideale Eenheid - de Broodjes Royce van boekenkastsystemen - Globe - Wernicke in 1912 bereikte zijn hoogste punt. Later, in 1920 daalde de verkoop en Wernicke, de uitvinder, stierf. Na een overname in 1955, dienden de arbeiders in Norwood hun bericht in en met dat viel het gordijn op het bedrijf Globe-Wernicke. Het eind van een bedrijf met een opmerkelijke geschiedenis en een uniek product. Maar dit betekende automatisch niet het eind van het opschortende systeem Globe-Wernicke. Het tegengestelde in feite.


Tegenwoordig is het nog mogelijk om bibliotheek opschortende systemen met de originele eenheden omhoog te maken Globe-Wernicke. Wegens het feit dat de plafonds aangezien de tweede helft van de laatste eeuw lager is geworden, en de standaard antieke boekenkasten in de meeste huizen niet pasten, is het oude stijl opschortende systeem een goed alternatief.

De boekenkasten worden verkocht in secties en wij kunnen zoeken welk kleur, korrel of grootte ook beste samenpast. Vaak verdelen de mensen twee grote eenheden als basissen, die dan met kleinere eenheden van de zelfde grootte worden opgebouwd en dan met een rand om de bovenkant weg beëindigd. De originele boekenkasten Globe-Wernicke zijn beschikbare in vier verschillende diepten en zeven verschillende hoogten. Geen ander merk biedt dit aan. De kasten kunnen ook onder een 90 graadhoek worden geplaatst en dan, met behulp van hoekmontage omhoog worden in paren gerangschikt. De meeste bevolen eenheden zijn gevraagde smaller dan de standaardgrootte (86 cm). Baseert en de rand-bovenkanten worden geleverd in de zelfde breedten zoals de gevallen zelf. De basissen zijn ook beschikbaar met of zonder laden.

In de winkel zijn er variërende voorbeelden van de vele mogelijkheden. Wat over het systeem ongebruikelijk is is dat het aan praktisch om het even welke ruimte kan worden aangepast. De originele stukken kunnen altijd worden toegevoegd aan. Terecht zo op alle originele stukken er een te vinden slogan is die elke Globe-Wernicke enthousiast scherp schatten: "Globe-Wernicke: voltooi altijd maar eindigde nooit."


Het koppelingssysteem is het meest essentiële onderdeel Globe-Wernicke boekenkastsystemen, waar de gescheiden eenheden worden opgebouwd. Één eenheid maakt verticaal aan andere vast. Wanneer het met elkaar verbinden van hen zijdelings wordt een horizontale toetredende strook gebruikt. Dit wordt geconstrueerd van een metaalstrook geverft blauw dat wanneer droog met verkoperen behandeld is om doorknobs aan te passen en handvatten te trekken. Naast de basisboekenkasten in eik en mahonie zijn er de eenheden van de combinatieboekenkast die door secties met verschillende hoogten en diepten met zo vele recht op te bouwen zoals hoekmontage worden samengebracht.

De hoek montage is uniek wegens het feit dat de oude hoekeenheden tegenwoordig zeer schaars zijn. Wat vaak wordt gebruikt om dit hoekprobleem op te lossen moet geribbelde bovenkanten en het scherpen bij een 90 graadhoek onder de hoekverbinding vastmaken. Indien nodig kan de hoek tussen de eenheden weg met een cornicing effect van opgepoetst hout worden beëindigd.

Elke eenheid van dit systeem komt met een verzegelde glasdeur. Letterlijk in minder dan geen tijd kan het worden geopend, waar na de deur op en over de boeken naar de achtermuur met het gebruik van rollagers kan worden geduwd die met een schaarsysteem uitgerust zijn. In het kort: eenvoudig te werken en praktisch te gebruiken. Het glas facetteerde voor hangende deuren kan aan orde worden gemaakt - en voor een extra geleverd supplement -. In plaats van glas kunnen de voordeuren ook met in reliëf gemaakte houten panelen worden bevolen. VAN LEEST.


1. Universele Stijl: De "800" reeksen (809..811..813..847, enz....) - Dit is het GEFINEERDE kanten en van "geen Banden" rechte en eenvoudige ontwerp. Het vernisje aan de kanten barst vaak en spleten en is moeilijker proper om te herstellen. De basissen hebben benen, maar zijn niet als de basissen van de opdrachtstijl, en de bovenkanten worden geregeld, maar hebben weinig accent in ontwerp, dat met het "schone, eenvoudige lijnen" ontwerp houdt. Over het algemeen beschikbaar in In vieren gedeeld Eiken, Imitatiemahonie, en Imitatieokkernoot.

2. De Stijl van de Opdracht van de kunst: De "300" reeksen (308..310..312..347..341, enz....) - Dit is de stevige houten reeks met dikkere kanten en gewoonlijk houten banden en houten knoppen, hoewel er een lijn (de reeks van de Opdracht) met metaalbanden en geregelde metaalknoppen is. De basissen hebben benen in de opdrachtstijl, en de bovenkanten zijn zwaar en regelen die, ook met hout of metaalbanden. De "Koloniale" en stijlen "van de Opdracht van de Kunst" delen de zelfde boeksecties, maar de markeringen kunnen de "Koloniale" of "Opdracht van de Kunst lezen". De bovenkant en de bodem zijn wat deze stijlen hoofdzakelijk onderscheidt. Over het algemeen beschikbaar in In vieren gedeeld Eiken, Echt Mahonie, en Echte Okkernoot. Beschikbaar in "enige deur" en "dubbele deur" configuratie eveneens. Het verschil tussen "Opdracht" en de "Opdracht van de Kunst" is de banden. De reeks die van de Opdracht metaal heeft verbindt en metaalknoppen.

3. Koloniale Stijl: Ook de "300" reeksen (308..310..312..340..349, enz....) - Zie hierboven de beschrijving van de Opdracht van de Kunst. Het belangrijkste verschil is de voorzijde van de bovenkant en de basissecties heeft een rond gemaakte verschijning en de benen worden eveneens rond gemaakt vooraan, in de typische koloniale stijl. Deze schijnen meer zeldzaam te zijn, en ik heb geen in de configuratie van de metaalband, in tegenstelling tot de opdrachtreeks gezien. De bovenkanten aan deze wegen een! Zij zijn zeer zwaar en stevig. Over het algemeen beschikbaar in In vieren gedeeld Eiken, Echt Mahonie, en Echte Okkernoot. Deze zijn ook beschikbaar in "enige deur" en "dubbele deur" configuraties.

4. Standaardstijl: De "100" reeksen, en reeksen van "StandaardD" en van "Standaardc" (108..110..112..143, D-12 1/4, c-9, enz....) - Dit is de gemeenschappelijkste reeks die hier op e-baai wordt gezien en wordt verkocht. Ongeveer 34 "wijd. Komt zoals gebruikelijk in de diepte van "D" of ongeveer 11 1/2 "diep of" C "diepte of ongeveer 9 1/2" diep. Komt ook in dieper "E -" sectie over 13 "diep en dan de douane, en de zeer zeldzame secties" van G "en" van H ". De standaardbovenkant evenals de standaardbasis voor deze zijn geroepen door vele namen; Rolltop, Waterval, Ogee, maakte voorzijde rond. Deze hebben metaalbanden, meestal messing, wat koper eveneens. De knoppen van het metaal, meestal messing, maar wat koper eveneens. Over het algemeen beschikbaar in Duidelijk Eiken, In vieren gedeeld Eiken, Echt Mahonie, en Imitatiemahonie. Beschikbaar in "enige deur" en "korte" configuraties in zowel de grootte van "D" als van "C".

5. Stijl Sheraton: De "500" reeksen (508..510..512..541, enz....) - Dit is een buitensporigere stijl met inlegsels aan de gezichten en de kanten. Deze, als de Universele stijlgevallen, worden GEFINEERD kanten. Deze werden vervaardigd slechts in echt mahonie, voor zover ik het weet, en vrij schaars ben. Ik geloof dit de universele stijl moeten zijn Cadillac, zodat zijn de bovenkanten vierkant en de basissen hebben benen, maar niet in de opdrachtstijl. Over het algemeen beschikbaar slechts in Echt Mahonie. Beschikbaar in "enige deur" en "dubbele deur" configuraties.

6. Ideale Stijl: De "400" reeksen (408..410..412..460..440..446, enz....) - Dit is de zeer buitensporige reeks van GW, de "reeks Hoogste van van de Lijn". Commissie kanten, zeer gedetailleerde versiering, rijk gesneden voorzijden. Stevig hout grotendeels. Deze hebben regelmatig glas, maar slechts geen afgeschuind of leaded glas. Zo, als u één van deze secties koopt en er regelmatig glas is, weet dat hoewel het oud glas kan zijn, het niet het originele glas is. De bovenkant en basis enigszins die als de standaardreeks rond wordt gemaakt, maar de absoluut verschillende. Dit is een zeer zeldzame reeks. Over het algemeen beschikbaar in In vieren gedeeld Eiken, Echt Mahonie, en Echte Okkernoot. Beschikbaar in "enige deur" configuratie.


Henry américain C. Yeiser d'homme d'affaires a installé une usine de meubles appelée les dossiers Co de globe à Cincinnati en 1882. L'usine a mis en marche le bureau de fabrication et les meubles de classement. Dans le temps à peu près identique, une usine de meubles appelée le Wernicke Co a été installée dans Rapids grand, Michigan. Quelques ans après le Wernicke Co a conçu une bibliothèque, qui s'est composée de différents composants de verre classés de coffret. En empilant ces composants sur et près d'un un autre, vous pourriez créer différents wholes.

Henry C. Yeiser obtient intéressé dans cette conception et acheté l'usine de Wernicke Co. Avec le nouveau propriétaire, l'usine a été retitrée le globe Wernicke Co. En Henry de décembre 1892 C. Yeiser a fait breveter cette conception unique de bibliothèque. Cette conception de bibliothèque était un succès énorme et un grand intérêt réveillé également en Europe. Vers la fin du 19ème siècle, un fabricant Thomas Turner de meubles de l'anglais a commencé le marketing la conception en Angleterre. La compagnie a été appelée Co Ltd de Wernicke de globe. À temps, le globe Wernicke Co a également augmenté au Canada, en France, en Belgique et en Autriche.

Avec le grand succès de conceptions plusieurs autres fabricants de meubles sont devenus intéressés par le produit et ont commencé à fabriquer les conceptions semblables. Les plus notables de ces derniers en Europe étaient : Shannon Registrator, de menthe et Gunn en Angleterre ; Août. Zeiss et Co (une plus défunte union de Zeiss) et Soennecken en l'Allemagne et le ligneul en Hongrie.

En Finlande, Billnäs Bruk Aktiebolag a commencé à fabriquer les meubles de bureau américains de modèle en 1909. Une partie significative de ce produit était la conception de bibliothèque de Wernicke de globe. Billnäs Bruk a fusionné avec Oy Fiskars ab sur le 1er janvier 1959, mais a continué à fabriquer des meubles sous le nom de Billnäs Bruk. La fabrication des meubles de bureau américains de modèle finis vers la fin des '60s et de l'usine de meubles a été fermée en 1970. BOKNAS

Otto Heinrich Louis Wernicke dans 1889 a inventé un système d'empilement pour des unités, signifié comme système rapide d'accumuler des étagères de stockage. La conception de ce support de stockage - fait à partir des planches nues - a formé la base de la technique connue postérieure de bibliothèque de Globe-Wernicke. On a accordé le premier brevet pour ce système de rayonnage en 1892 et ne pas désirer ardemment après Wernicke Company, dans Norwood, une banlieue de Cincinnati aux Etats-Unis, émergée. La popularité des unités alors connues de bibliothèque de Wernicke a monté très rapidement. Avec la publicité fréquente dans le journaliste occidental du nord de loi ces unités ont été bientôt données au surnom les bibliothèques d'avocat. Mais les notaires, les avocats et les ministres ont également trouvé le système d'empilement de bibliothèque un avantage attrayant. Dans 1899 le globe de compagnie a assuré la compagnie de Wernicke. La compagnie de globe s'était déjà développée pour être l'un des plus grands producteurs des systèmes d'archives, des meubles d'archivage et du rayonnage de casier. La compagnie a su qu'avec ce système d'étagère il créerait une addition bienvenue à leur brochure existante des produits. Grâce à la popularité croissante des unités ils pourraient les faire à un début sur le raffinage. Ainsi ils ont commencé à les employer pour accrocher dans des avants de fenêtre qu'aider empêchent la poussière et une fois que l'bordure décorative et ridging couvert étaient ajoutés elles ont été également employées dans des secteurs de réception. En raison de ceci, le système d'étagère de Globe-Wernicke a développé un marché plus large.


La production des unités de bibliothèque de Globe-Wernicke a été non seulement liée aux Etats-Unis. À Londres ils ont également commencé à les fabriquer et en conséquence ils sont également devenus un grand succès en Angleterre victorienne. Merci également à la diffusion mondiale des colonies britanniques, les gens ont même trouvé les étagères empilables en Inde. Des produits réussis sont toujours imités. Après que le premier brevet ait expiré (après 20 ans), les premières copies sont apparues. C'était non seulement le cas aux Etats-Unis et en Angleterre, mais des copies également étaient fabriquées en l'Allemagne et Scandinavie. Une grande différence entre ces copies et les unités de Wernicke d'original était que les premières copies appelées ont été limitées seulement à la production de quelques conceptions. Le Globe-Wernicke était le seul qui a fourni un assortiment riche des profondeurs, des largeurs, des tailles et des modèles variables. Chaque nouveau produit a été immédiatement fait breveter, qui a signifié que la compagnie de Globe-Wernicke est demeurée une étape en avant de la concurrence. C'est également grâce au slogan "qu'il se développe avec vos affaires et vos affaires se développent avec elles", ce Globe-Wernicke ont devenu soient l'une des plus grandes usines de son temps.


Sans compter que la ligne standard de ` 'du Globe-Wernicke, il y avait également le modèle universel plus simple et la bibliothèque idéale de luxe d'unité avec le souiller-verre, des pilastres sur les balustres et une couverture striée avec des feuilles d'acanthus de coupe-circuit. Tous les compartiments ont été livrés dans le chêne et l'acajou. Ce qui a commencé en tant qu'unités empilables simples de rayonnage, parfois transformées en bibliothèque complète, avec autant de cloison en tant que modèles faisants le coin dans des tailles variables. En annonces, les compartiments ont été félicités avec le terme "l'idée d'unité", d'aider à écarter le concept de base du système de rayonnage. Avec la bibliothèque idéale de luxe d'unité - la Rolls Royce des systèmes de bibliothèque - le globe Wernicke dans 1912 a atteint son point plus élevé. Plus tard, dans 1920 ventes laissées tomber et Wernicke, l'inventeur, mort. Après un changement en 1955, les ouvriers chez Norwood remis dans leur notification et avec celui le rideau sont tombés sur la compagnie de Globe-Wernicke. L'extrémité d'une compagnie avec une histoire remarquable et un produit unique. Mais ceci n'a pas automatiquement signifié l'extrémité du système de rayonnage de Globe-Wernicke. L'opposé en fait.


De nos jours il est encore possible de composer des systèmes de rayonnage de bibliothèque avec les unités originales de Globe-Wernicke. Étant donné que les plafonds puisque la deuxième moitié du dernier siècle sont devenues plus bas, et les bibliothèques antiques standard dans la plupart des maisons ne se sont pas adaptés, le vieux système de rayonnage de modèle est une bonne alternative.

Les bibliothèques sont vendues dans les sections et nous pouvons rechercher quelque couleur, grain ou taille s'adapte mieux ensemble. Souvent les gens divisent deux grandes unités comme bases, qui sont alors accumulées avec de plus petites unités de la même taille et au loin alors finies avec une arête autour du dessus. Les bibliothèques originales de Globe-Wernicke sont disponibles dans quatre profondeurs différentes et sept tailles différentes. Aucune autre marque n'offre ceci. Les compartiments peuvent également être placés sous un coin de 90 degrés et alors être appareillés vers le haut, à l'aide des garnitures faisantes le coin. La plupart des unités commandées sont plus étroite demandé que la taille standard (86 centimètres). Des bases et les arête-dessus sont fournis dans les mêmes largeurs que les caisses elles-mêmes. Les bases sont également disponibles avec ou sans des tiroirs.

Dans le magasin là changent des exemples des nombreuses possibilités. Ce qui est peu commun au sujet du système est qu'il peut être adapté à pratiquement n'importe quel espace. Des morceaux originaux peuvent toujours être ajoutés à. Correctement ainsi sur tous les morceaux originaux il y a un slogan à trouver que chaque fervent de Globe-Wernicke prise profondément : "Globe-Wernicke : accomplissez toujours mais n'avez jamais fini."


Le système d'accouplement est la partie la plus essentielle des systèmes de bibliothèque de Globe-Wernicke, où les unités séparées sont accumulées. Attaches d'une unité verticalement à l'autre. En les liant une bande se joignante horizontale est employée en longueur. Ceci est construit d'un bleu teint par bande en métal qui une fois sec est couvert de cuivrage pour assortir les poignées de porte et pour dessiner des poignées. Sans compter que les bibliothèques de base dans le chêne et l'acajou il y a des unités de bibliothèque de combinaison qui sont remontées en accumulant des sections avec différentes tailles et profondeurs avec autant de droit en tant que garnitures faisantes le coin.

Les garnitures faisantes le coin sont uniques en raison du fait que les vieilles unités faisantes le coin sont de nos jours très rares. Ce qui est souvent employé pour résoudre ce problème faisant le coin est d'attacher les dessus et l'bordure striés à un angle de 90 degrés sous le joint faisant le coin. Au besoin le coin entre les unités peut être fini avec un effet cornicing de bois poli.

Chaque unité de ce système vient avec une porte de verre scellée. Littéralement en moins d'aucune heure elle peut être ouverte, où après que la porte puisse être poussée vers le haut et plus de les livres vers le mur arrière avec l'utilisation des roulements à rouleaux qui sont équipés d'un système de ciseaux. En bref : simple pour utiliser et pratique pour employer. Des portes accrochantes avant facettées par verre peuvent être faites pour passer commande - et pour un supplément supplémentaire - livré. Au lieu du verre les portes avant peuvent également être commandées avec les panneaux en bois de relief. VAN LEEST.


1. Modèle Universel : Les "800" séries (809, 811, 813, 847, etc.....) - ceci sont les côtés PLAQUÉS et "aucunes bandes" droits et conception simple. Le placage des côtés souvent fend et des fentes et est plus difficile à réparer proprement. Les bases ont des jambes, mais ne sont pas comme les bases de modèle de mission, et les dessus sont ajustés, mais ont peu d'accent dans la conception, gardant avec "les lignes propres et simples" conception. Généralement disponible en chêne divisé, acajou d'imitation, et noix d'imitation.

2. Modèle De Mission D'Art : Les "300" séries (308, 310, 312, 347, 341, etc.....) - ceci sont la série en bois pleine avec des côtés plus épais et des bandes habituellement en bois et des boutons en bois, bien qu'il y ait une ligne (série de mission) avec des bandes métalliques et des boutons en métal, carrés. Les bases ont des jambes dans le modèle de mission, et les dessus sont lourds et à angle droit, aussi avec des bandes métalliques en bois ou. La mission "coloniale" et "d'art" dénomme la part que le même livre sectionne, mais les étiquettes peuvent lire la mission "coloniale" ou "d'art". Le dessus et le bas sont ce qui distingue ces modèles principalement. Généralement disponible en chêne divisé, acajou véritable, et noix véritable. Disponible dans la configuration "de porte simple" et de "double porte" aussi bien. La différence entre la "mission" et l'"mission d'art" est les bandes. La série de mission ayant des bandes métalliques et des boutons en métal.

3. Modèle Colonial : En outre les "300" séries (308, 310, 312, 340, 349, etc.....) - voir la description de mission d'art ci-dessus. La différence principale est l'avant du dessus et les sections de base a un aspect arrondi et les jambes sont aussi bien arrondies dans l'avant, dans le modèle colonial typique. Ceux-ci en semblent être un démuni plus rare, et de I vu dans la configuration de bande métallique, à la différence de la série de mission. Les dessus à ces derniers pèsent beaucoup ! Ils sont très lourds et pleins. Généralement disponible en chêne divisé, acajou véritable, et noix véritable. Ce sont également disponibles dans des configurations "de porte simple" et de "double porte".

4. Modèle Standard : "100" séries, et les séries "de D standard" et "de C standard" (108, 110, 112, 143, D-12 1/4, C-9, etc.....) - ceci sont la série la plus commune vue et vendue ici sur l'e-Compartiment. Environ 34"large. Venez standard dans la profondeur d'"D" ou environ 11 1/2"profonds ou la profondeur d'" C "ou environ 9 1/2" profonds. Vient en outre dans une section plus profonde d'"E" environ 13"profond et puis la coutume, et les sections très rares de" G "et de" H ". Le dessus standard aussi bien que la base standard pour ces derniers s'est appelé par beaucoup de noms ; Rolltop, chute d'eau, Ogee, a arrondi l'avant. Ceux-ci ont des bandes métalliques, la plupart du temps en laiton, du cuivre aussi bien. Boutons en métal, la plupart du temps en laiton, mais du cuivre aussi bien. Généralement disponible dans le chêne plat, le chêne divisé, l'acajou véritable, et l'acajou d'imitation. Disponible dans "porte simple" et configurations "courtes" dans les tailles d'"D" et d'"C".

5. Modèle De Sheraton : Les "500" séries (508, 510, 512, 541, etc.....) - ceci sont un modèle plus de fantaisie avec des marqueteries des visages et des côtés. Ce sont, comme les cas universels de modèle, les côtés PLAQUÉS. Ceux-ci ont été fabriqués seulement en vrai acajou, dans la mesure où je sais, et sont assez rares. Je crois que ceux-ci sont censés pour être le modèle universel de Cadillac, ainsi les dessus sont à angle droit et les bases ont des jambes, mais pas dans le modèle de mission. Généralement disponible seulement dans l'acajou véritable. Disponible dans des configurations "de porte simple" et de "double porte".

6. Modèle Idéal : Les "400" séries (408, 410, 412, 460, 440, 446, etc.....) - ceci sont la fantaisie même réglée du gw, le "dessus de la ligne" série. Côtés lambrissés, équilibre très détaillé, avants richement découpés. Bois plein pour la plupart. Ceux-ci n'ont pas le verre régulier, mais le verre seulement taillé ou plombé. Ainsi, si vous achetez une de ces sections et il y a verre régulier, savez que bien que ce puisse être vieux verre, ce n'est pas le verre original. Le dessus et la base légèrement arrondis comme la série standard, mais certainement différents. C'est un ensemble très rare. Généralement disponible en chêne divisé, acajou véritable, et noix véritable. Disponible dans la configuration "de porte simple".


Ein amerikanischer Geschäftsmann Henry C. Yeiser stellte eine Möbelfabrik genannt die Globe-Akten Co in Cincinnati 1882 auf. Die Fabrik stellte Herstellung Büro und Archivierung Möbel an. In der ungefähr gleichen Zeit wurde eine Möbelfabrik, die das Wernicke Co genannt wurde, in großartiges Rapids, Michigan aufgestellt. Einige Jahre später entwarf das Wernicke Co ein Bücherregal, das aus unterschiedlichen sortierten Glasschrankbestandteilen bestand. Indem Sie diese Bestandteile auf und neben einem anderer stapelten, konnten Sie unterschiedliche wholes verursachen.

Henry C. Yeiser erhält interessiert für dieses Design und die Wernicke Co Fabrik gekauft. Mit dem neuen Inhaber wurde die Fabrik die Globe Wernicke Co umbenannt. Im Dezember 1892 Henry patentierte C. Yeiser dieses einzigartige Bücherregaldesign. Dieses Bücherregaldesign war ein sehr großer Erfolg und ein gewecktes großes Interesse auch an Europa. Ende des 19. Jahrhunderts begann ein englischer Möbelhersteller Thomas Turner Marketing das Design in England. Die Firma wurde Globe Wernicke Co Ltd. genannt. In der Zeit erweiterte die Globe Wernicke Co auch nach Kanada, Frankreich, Belgien und Österreich.

Mit dem großen Erfolg der Designs erhalten einige andere Möbelhersteller interessiert für das Produkt und begonnen, ähnliche Designs herzustellen. Die bemerkenswertesten von diesen in Europa waren: Shannon Registrator, mit Pfefferminzaroma und Gunn in England; Aug. Zeiss u. Co (neuerer Zeiss Anschluß) und Soennecken in Deutschland und im Lingel in Ungarn.

In Finnland fing Billnäs Bruk Aktiebolag an, amerikanische Artbüromöbel 1909 herzustellen. Ein bedeutendes Teil dieser Produktserie war das Globe Wernicke Bücherregaldesign. Billnäs Bruk vermischte mit Oy Fiskars AB auf Januar 1. 1959, aber fuhr fort, Möbel unter dem Namen Billnäs Bruk herzustellen. Das Bilden der amerikanischen Artbüromöbel, die in den späten '60s und in der Möbelfabrik beendet wurden, wurde unten 1970 geschlossen. BOKNAS

Otto Heinrich Louis Wernicke in 1889 erfand ein stapelndes System für Maßeinheiten, bedeutet als schnelles System des Aufbauens der Speicherregale. Das Design dieser Speicherzahnstange - gebildet von den bloßen Planken - bildete die Grundlage der neueren bekannten Globe-Wernicke Bücherregaltechnik. Das erste Patent für dieses Fachsystem wurde 1892 und nicht nach Wernicke Company, in Norwood, ein Vorort von Cincinnati in den USA sich zu sehnen bewilligt, aufgetaucht. Die Popularität der dann bekannten Wernicke Bücherregalmaßeinheiten stieg sehr schnell. Mit dem häufigen Annoncieren im westlichen Gesetz-Nordreporter wurden diese Maßeinheiten dem Spitznamen die Rechtsanwalt-Bücherregale bald gegeben. Aber Notare, Rechtsanwälte und Minister fanden auch das stapelnde Bücherregalsystem ein attraktiver Nutzen. In 1899 übernahm die Firma Globe die Wernicke Firma. Die Globefirma hatte bereits sich entwickelt, um einer der größten Produzenten der Archivsysteme, der Aktenschänke und des Ablagefachfaches zu sein. Die Firma wußte, daß mit diesem Bücherregalsystem es eine willkommene Hinzufügung zu ihrer vorhandenen Mappe der Produkte verursachen würde. Dank die zunehmende Popularität der Maßeinheiten konnten sie einen Anfang auf Raffinierung sie bilden. So fingen sie an, sie zu verwenden, um in den Fensterfrontseiten zu hängen, die das Helfen Staub verhindern und sobald dekorativer Rand und das umfaßte Ridging addiert wurden, wurden sie auch in den Aufnahmebereichen benutzt. Resultierend aus diesem entwickelte das Globe-Wernicke Bücherregalsystem einen breiteren Markt.


Die Produktion der Globe-Wernicke Bücherregalmaßeinheiten wurde nicht nur in die USA verbunden. In London fingen sie auch an, sie herzustellen und infolgedessen wurden sie auch ein großer Erfolg in viktorianisch England. Dank auch der weltweiten Verbreitung der britischen Kolonien, Leute kam sogar über die stapelbaren Bücherregale in Indien. Erfolgreiche Produkte werden immer nachgeahmt. Nachdem das erste Patent (nach 20 Jahren) ablief, erschienen die ersten Kopien. Dieses war nicht nur der Fall in den USA und im England, aber Kopien wurden auch in Deutschland und in Skandinavien hergestellt. Ein grosser Unterschied zwischen diesen Kopien und den Vorlage Wernicke Maßeinheiten war, daß die ersten genannten Kopien nur auf die Produktion einiger Designs begrenzt wurden. Globe-Wernicke war das einzige, wer eine reiche Zusammenstellung der unterschiedlichen Tiefen, der Breiten, der Höhen und der Arten lieferte. Jedes neue Produkt wurde sofort patentiert, das bedeutete, daß die Globe-Wernicke Firma ein Schritt vor der Konkurrenz blieb. Es ist auch dank den Slogan, ", das er mit Ihrem Geschäft wächst und Ihr Geschäft wächst mit ihm", diese Globe-Wernicke sich entwickelte ist eine der größten Fabriken seiner Zeit.


Außer der ` Standardlinie ' der Globe-Wernicke, gab es auch die einfachere Universalart und das ideale Maßeinheit Luxuxbücherregal mit Befleckenglas, Pilasters auf den balusters und einer zerfurchten Abdeckung mit Ausschnitt Acanthusblättern. Alle Schränke wurden in Eiche und in Mahagonibaum geliefert. Was als einfache stapelbare Fachmaßeinheiten anfing, manchmal gemacht zu eine komplette Bibliothek, mit so vielem Fach Eckmodelle in unterschiedlichen Größen. In den Adverts wurden die Schränke mit der Bezeichnung "die Maßeinheit Idee", zu helfen das, Grundmodell des Fachsystems zu verbreiten gepriesen. Mit dem idealen Maßeinheit Luxuxbücherregal - die Rolls Royce der Bücherregalsysteme - Globe Wernicke in 1912 erreichte seinen höchsten Punkt. Später in 1920 Verkäufen fallengelassen und in Wernicke, der Erfinder, gestorben. Nach einer Übernahme 1955, fielen die Arbeiter bei Norwood, das in ihrer Nachricht und mit dem der Vorhang übergeben wurde, auf die Globe-Wernicke Firma. Das Ende einer Firma mit einer bemerkenswerten Geschichte und einem einzigartigen Produkt. Aber dieses nicht automatisch bedeutete das Ende des Globe-Wernicke Fachsystems. Das Entgegengesetzte tatsächlich.


Heutzutage ist es noch möglich, Bibliothekfachsysteme mit den ursprünglichen Globe-Wernicke Maßeinheiten zu bilden. Wegen der Tatsache, daß die Decken, da die zweite Hälfte des letzten Jahrhunderts niedriger geworden sind und die antiken Standardbücherregale in den meisten Häusern nicht paßten, ist das alte Artfachsystem eine gute Alternative.

Die Bücherregale werden in den Abschnitten verkauft und wir können suchen, was Farbe, Korn oder nach Größe gut zusammen paßt. Häufig teilen Leute zwei große Maßeinheiten als Unterseiten, die dann mit kleineren Maßeinheiten der gleichen Größe aufgebaut werden und dann weg eine Kante ringsum die Oberseite beendet. Die ursprünglichen Globe-Wernicke Bücherregale sind in vier unterschiedlichen Tiefen und in sieben unterschiedlichen Höhen vorhanden. Keine andere Marke bietet dieses an. Die Schränke können unter eine 90-Grad-Ecke auch gesetzt werden und, mit Hilfe der Eckbefestigungen dann oben zusammengepaßt werden. Die meisten bestellten worden Maßeinheiten sind erbetene schmalere als die Standardgröße (86 Zentimeter). Unterseiten und Kante-Oberseiten werden in die gleichen Breiten wie die Fälle selbst geliefert. Die Unterseiten sind auch mit oder ohne Fächer vorhanden.

Im Geschäft verändern Beispiele der vielen Möglichkeiten. Was über das System ungewöhnlich ist, ist, daß es praktisch jedem möglichem Raum angepaßt werden kann. Ursprüngliche Stücke können immer hinzugefügt werden. Mit Recht so auf allen ursprünglichen Stücken gibt es einen gefunden zu werden Slogan,, den jeder Globe-Wernicke Enthusiast scharf hütet: "Globe-Wernicke: führen Sie immer durch, aber beendete nie."


Das Koppelung System ist das wesentlichste Teil der Globe-Wernicke Bücherregalsysteme, in denen die getrennten Maßeinheiten aufgebaut werden. Eine Maßeinheit Befestigunger vertikal zur anderen. Wenn man sie seitlich ein horizontaler verbindener Streifen wird benutzt verbindet. Dieses wird aus einem Metalstreifen gefärbten Blau hergestellt, das, wenn es getrocknet wird, mit Verkupferung bedeckt wird, um die Türknäufe zusammenzubringen und Handgriffe zu zeichnen. Außer den grundlegenden Bücherregalen in der Eiche und im Mahagonibaum gibt es die Kombination Bücherregalmaßeinheiten die zusammengefügt werden, indem man Abschnitte mit unterschiedlichen Höhen und Tiefen mit so vielem geradem Eckbefestigungen aufbaut.

Eckbefestigungen sind wegen der Tatsache einzigartig, daß alte Eckmaßeinheiten heutzutage sehr knapp sind. Was häufig verwendet wird, um zu lösen, soll dieses Eckproblem zerfurchte Oberseiten und Rand in einem 90-Grad-Winkel unter der Eckverbindung anbringen. Bei Bedarf kann die Ecke zwischen den Maßeinheiten einen cornicing Effekt von poliertem Holz weg beendet werden.

Jede Maßeinheit dieses Systems kommt mit einer Siegelglastür. Buchstäblich in kleiner als keine Zeit kann sie geöffnet werden, wo, nachdem die Tür oben und rüber gedrückt werden kann die Bücher in Richtung zur rückseitigen Wand mit dem Gebrauch von Rollenlagern, die mit einem scissor System ausgerüstet werden. Kurz gesagt: einfach zu benützen und praktisch verwenden. Glas facettierte vordere hängende Türen können gebildet werden, um zu bestellen - und für eine Extraergänzung - geliefert. Anstelle vom Glas können die vorderen Türen mit prägeartigen hölzernen Verkleidungen auch bestellt werden. VAN LEEST.


1. Universalart: Die "800" Reihe (809, 811, 813, 847, usw....) - dieses ist die FURNIERTEN geraden Seiten und "keine Bänder" und einfaches Design. Das Furnier-Blatt auf den Seiten häufig knackt und Spalten und ist schwieriger, sauber zu reparieren. Die Unterseiten haben Beine, aber sind nicht wie die Mission Artunterseiten, und die Oberseiten werden quadriert, aber wenig Akzent im Design haben und halten mit den "klaren, einfachen Linien" Design. Im Allgemeinen vorhanden in geviertelter Eiche, im nachgemachten Mahagonibaum und in der nachgemachten Walnuß.

2. Kunst-Mission Art: Die "300" Reihe (308, 310, 312, 347, 341, usw....) - dieses ist die feste hölzerne Reihe mit stärkeren Seiten und normalerweise hölzernen die Bänder und hölzerne Drehknöpfe, obgleich es eine Linie (Mission Reihe) mit Metallbändern und Metalldrehknöpfen gibt, quadriert. Die Unterseiten haben Beine in der Mission Art, und die Oberseiten sind schwer und, auch mit Holz- oder Metallbändern quadriert. Die "Kolonial-" und "kunst-Mission" styles Anteil, den das gleiche Buch unterteilt, aber die Umbauten können "Kolonial-" oder "kunst-Mission" lesen. Die Oberseite und die Unterseite sind, was diese Arten überwiegend unterscheidet. Im Allgemeinen vorhanden in geviertelter Eiche, im echten Mahagonibaum und in der echten Walnuß. Vorhanden in der Konfiguration "der einzelnen Tür" und "der doppelten Tür" außerdem. Der Unterschied zwischen "Mission" und "kunst-Mission" ist die Bänder. Die Mission Reihe, die Metallbänder und Metalldrehknöpfe hat.

3. Kolonialart: Auch die "300" Reihe (308, 310, 312, 340, 349, usw....) - sehen Sie die kunst-Mission Beschreibung oben. Der Hauptunterschied ist die Frontseite der Oberseite und Unterseite Abschnitte hat ein gerundetes Aussehen und die Beine werden in der Frontseite außerdem, in der typischen Kolonialart gerundet. Diese scheinen, seltener zu sein, und ich habe nicht irgendwelche in der Metallbandkonfiguration, anders als die Mission Reihe gesehen. Die Oberseiten zu diesen wiegen viel! Sie sind sehr schwer und fest. Im Allgemeinen vorhanden in geviertelter Eiche, im echten Mahagonibaum und in der echten Walnuß. Diese sind auch in den Konfigurationen "der einzelnen Tür" und "der doppelten Tür" vorhanden.

4. Standardart: Die "100" Reihe und "Standardd" und "Standardc" Reihe (108, 110, 112, 143, D-12 1/4, C-9, usw....) - dieses ist die allgemeinste Reihe, die hier auf EBucht gesehen wird und verkauft ist. Ungefähr 34"breit. Kommt Standard- in die "D" Tiefe oder ungefähr 11 1/2", die tief sind oder die" C "Tiefe oder ungefähr 9 tiefes 1/2". Kommt auch in einen tieferen "E" Abschnitt über tiefes 13"und dann die Gewohnheit und in sehr seltene" G "und" H "Abschnitte. Die Standardoberseite sowie die Standardunterseite für diese ist durch viele Namen benannt worden; Rolltop, Wasserfall, Ogee, rundete Frontseite. Diese haben die Metallbänder, meistens Messing, etwas Kupfer außerdem. Metalldrehknöpfe, meistens Messing, aber etwas Kupfer außerdem. Im Allgemeinen vorhanden in der normalen Eiche, in geviertelter Eiche, im echten Mahagonibaum und im nachgemachten Mahagonibaum. Vorhanden "einzelne Tür" und "kurze" Konfigurationen in in den "D" und "C" Größen.

5. Sheraton Art: Die "500" Reihe (508, 510, 512, 541, usw....) - dieses ist eine phantastischere Art mit Einlegearbeiten auf den Gesichtern und den Seiten. Diese sind, wie die Universalartfälle, FURNIERTE Seiten. Diese wurden nur im realen Mahagonibaum hergestellt, insoweit ich weiß, und sind recht knapp. Ich glaube, daß diese bedeutet werden, um die Cadillac Universalart zu sein, also die Oberseiten Quadrat sind und die Unterseiten Beine, aber nicht in der Mission Art haben. Im Allgemeinen vorhanden nur im echten Mahagonibaum. Vorhanden in den Konfigurationen "der einzelnen Tür" und "der doppelten Tür".

6. Ideale Art: Die "400" Reihe (408, 410, 412, 460, 440, 446, usw....) - dieses ist die Phantasie, die von GW, die "Oberseite der Linie" Reihe eingestellt wird. Getäfelte Seiten, sehr ausführliche Ordnung, reich geschnitzte Frontseiten. Festes Holz in den meisten Fällen. Diese haben nicht regelmäßiges Glas, aber nur abgeschrägtes oder verbleites Glas. So wenn Sie einen dieser Abschnitte kaufen und es regelmäßiges Glas gibt, wissen Sie, daß, obgleich es altes Glas sein kann, es nicht das ursprüngliche Glas ist. Die Oberseite und die Unterseite rundeten ein wenig wie die Standard-Reihe, aber definitiv unterschiedlich. Dieses ist ein sehr seltener Satz. Im Allgemeinen vorhanden in geviertelter Eiche, im echten Mahagonibaum und in der echten Walnuß. Vorhanden in der Konfiguration "der einzelnen Tür".



email: John and Chrissie - theartsandcraftshome@gmail.com